Acronyms and Abbreviations

Carpal tunnel syndrome

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They roughly outline the breakup of the supercontinent Pangaia into continents on which different kinds of fauna lived and evolved. Check Access Check Access. An interesting aspect of llama dentition is the presence of fighting teeth or fangs. In this way certain favorable genes--favorable to adapting to environment pressures--gradually become more numerous in a given population. Livestock markets are a primary industry sector where animal movement and identification information can be recorded. Think of the apparent curve caused by a child trying to walk a straight line from the center of a carrousel to the edge as it spins.

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This procedure is much less expensive than simply walking into the LabCorp office. Prescription Drugs for Treating Hypertension The following drugs may exhibit fewer and less severe side effects than many of the other drugs given to reduce blood pressure. Tekturna is a kidney renin blocker that can be taken in the morning at least 30 minutes before breakfast.

Avapro is an angiotension 2 receptor antagonist or blocker that can be taken with lunch. Your doctor many suggest than be taken at separate times rather than together. Blood pressure control medications are known for inhibiting libido reduced sex drive. These two drugs appear not to have this negative side effect, which is rare among blood pressure reduction drugs. It works by decreasing certain chemicals in the body, which cause blood vessels to narrow and sodium and fluids to be stored in the kidneys.

Tekturna generic name aliskiren hemifumarate. Renin cleaves angiotensinogen to form the inactive decapeptide angiotensin I Ang I. Ang II is a powerful vasoconstrictor and leads to the release of catecholamines from the adrenal medulla and prejunctional nerve endings. It also promotes aldosterone secretion and sodium reabsorption. Together, these effects increase blood pressure. Ang II also inhibits renin release, thus providing a negative feedback to the system. This cycle, from renin through angiotensin to aldosterone and its associated negative feedback loop, is known as the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system RAAS.

Whether aliskiren affects other RAAS components, e. Heart disease is cause by eating plant-based foods that increase blood glucose and thereby increase blood insulin levels, and foods that contain a significant amount of polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acids. Fruit and fruit juices. Whole grains and refined grains. Legumes hard beans but not green beans. High fructose corn syrup.

Sugar, glucose, fructose, and honey. Vegetable, seed, and nut omega-6 polyunsaturated fats and oils. Hydrogenated vegetable, seed, and nut oils, called trans fats. Starches like potatoes and yams.. Cows' Milk, goats' milk, rice milk, soy milk, and yogurt. Excess consumption of calories from any food. The onslaught of carbohydrates in the diet over many years causes glucose intolerance and insulin resistance.

As we can see from the list, whole grains give a double hit at causing heart disease. Whole grains are very high in carbohydrates that raise blood glucose levels and polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acids that enter the artery walls where they become rancid and inflammatory.

People shopping in supermarkets can be seen with carts loaded with whole grain products and a wide assortment of fruit. These people are at high risk of developing coronary artery disease, diabetes, cancer, and Alzheimer's disease as proven by the ever-increasing epidemic of these diseases. It is a scientific fact that fructose sugar in fruit causes insulin resistance that increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease, heart disease, high blood pressure, cancer, and diabetes.

See the following truthful study that proves fructose as found in abundance in fruit and fruit juice is one of the root causes for metabolic syndrome, diabetes, heart disease, cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Metabolic syndrome includes high triglyceride levels, a low HDL good cholesterol level, high blood pressure, and a high level of glucose sugar in the blood.

Eating fresh red meat does not contribute to heart disease in any way. Many health professionals attempt to label red meat as unhealthy because it contains saturated fat within the tissue that cannot be easily cut away. Vegetarians label red meat as unhealthy simply because eating animal flesh is a religious issue. Vegetarians will propagate any distortion or lie about red meat in hopes it will persuade others to abstain from eating animals' flesh.

These lies are successful in deceiving and brainwashing many people. However, the science against eating fresh red meat does not exist. It is all conjecture or based on falsified studies. Some studies find fault with high-salt, high-sugar deli meats and then attempt to paint fresh red meat with the same faults.

These studies are a fraud. Fresh red meat is an excellent food and very healthy. Eating fresh red meat provides complete nutrition for healing and building a strong body. All saturated fats have molecules with all of the electron bonds occupied. Because of this, saturated fats cannot be oxidized. Saturated fats cannot be attacked by other molecules or free radical ions. Saturated fats cannot be glycated. For these reasons, a saturated fat such as lauric fatty acid in coconut oil can be left on the kitchen counter without refrigeration for a full year without turning rancid or degrading.

The primary fatty acid in beef fat is monounsaturated fat. Monounsaturated fatty acids are considered much healthier than polyunsaturated fatty acids that have multiple free electron spaces for easy oxidation. This is the reason polyunsaturated fatty acids as found in vegetable oils are unhealthy. Vegetable oils as found in grains, seeds, and nuts increase the risk of coronary artery disease. Some studies claim that eating saturated fats increases the percentage of LDL in the blood and thereby increases the risk of heart disease.

These studies fail to realize that eating saturated fats causes the LDL molecules to become the larger, less-dense variety that do not increase heart disease risk. Eating saturated fats from animal or plant sources does not contribute to heart disease in any way. Proof Saturated Fats Are Healthy. Ron Rosedale - pdf. If you think red meat and saturated fats causes heart disease, you have been brainwashed. Nanobacteria do not cause arterial plaque or heart disease. Some researchers claim that a small crystalline molecule is a miniature bacterial times smaller than regular bacteria.

They claim nanobacteria are living organisms that cause plaque to accumulate in heart arteries. These claims are false. Nanobacteria are simply calcium phosphate crystals that can form in organs of the body. These crystals tend to propagate, not reproduce. Products to treat or rid the body of nanobacteria are a fraud. Evidence continues to accumulate indicating that bacterial and viral infections can cause arterial plaque heart disease.

Doctors have been treating infections of the heart muscle and blood vessels for decades. However, the new studies in Germany and elsewhere have shown that bacterial and viral infections can also cause the formation of arterial plaque. Parts of dead bacteria were found in arterial plaque in the early s. The immune system fights the infection of the artery by attacking the invader.

The invader that has penetrated into the arterial wall is killed and encapsulated, resulting in inflammation and arterial plaque that restricts the blood flow in the artery. This condition can also occur in other arteries including the carotid artery in the neck, which causes a stroke, and arteries of the legs, which causes peripheral arterial disease.

Some of the typical infections that may place a person at risk for heart disease include: Helicobacter pylori, which can cause stomach ulcers. Chlamydia pneumoniae, which can cause pneumonia. Mycoplasma pneumoniae, which is another cause of pneumonia.

Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, which cause cold sores and genital herpes. Cytomegalovirus, which is another herpes virus. Epstein-Barr virus, which causes mononucleosis. Hemophilus influenzae, a bacteria that causes ear and upper respiratory infections. German Study Links Infection, Heart Disease Studies have reported associations between heart disease and chronic bacterial and viral infections. Infectious aetiology in acute coronary syndromes - Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - To ascertain the relationship between seropositivity to chronic infections with Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Cytomegalovirus CMV and acute coronary syndromes and association of each of these infective agent with biochemical parameters and cardiovascular risk factors.

The cases were aged years and they were compared with age, sex and socio-economic status matched controls without evidence of coronary artery disease CAD. Seropositivity in normal subjects for H. No significant association of infective agents and coronary syndromes was observed.

Higher levels of lipids, lipoproteins, C-reactive protein and higher percentage of coronary risk factors in patients seropositive for H. Several authors have reported association of coronary artery disease CAD with gram negative bacteria Helicobacter pylori and Chlamydia pneumoniae and with certain herpes viruses Cytomegalovirus.

Endothelial injury or dysfunction, smooth muscle proliferation, local inflammation,7 chronic inflammation, cross reactive antibodies or changes in cardiovascular risk factors are proposed mechanisms for the reported associations between infections and CAD.

The possible mechanisms by which H. Endovascular presence of viable Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common phenomenon in coronary artery disease - Journal of the American College of Cardiology - Doctors and researchers in the United States will never seriously investigate bacteria and viruses as a cause for coronary artery disease. The constant mantra against cholesterol, saturated fats, and red meat as the causes of coronary artery disease is absolutely overwhelming.

Pharmaceutical companies making cholesterol-lowering drugs, carbohydrate food manufacturers, and vegetarians swamp the media with their lies. Agents from these organizations infiltrate universities, medical societies, and government agencies in order to protect their sponsors.

Medical schools fear losing research grants from the drug and food manufacturing companies. True science has been blocked, and heart disease rages as the number one cause of death. Vegetarians spread lies about beef.

An example is the common claim that protein causes gout. Many people are brainwashed in their belief of these lies. Gout is actually caused by carbohydrates in the diet. Heart Disease Can Be Reversed. Maryanne was 63 years of age when she felt a sharp chest pain, shortness of breath, and lightheadedness while working in her yard.

She immediately diagnosed herself as having a heart attack. Unlike many others, she sought help immediately. A close friend drove her to the hospital she preferred. The initial evaluation showed nothing. The routine electrocardiogram was normal. The physician on duty suggested she return home and call immediately if anything changed.

She refused to leave and insisted that additional tests be performed. She was certain she had suffered a heart attack. Further tests did show the buildup of atherosclerotic plaque. A coronary X-ray angiogram was performed in which a thin, long, flexible tube called a catheter is threaded into an artery in the forearm or groin. The doctor guides the catheter toward the heart using a special camera.

Once the catheter is in position, dye is injected to show blood flow inside the coronary arteries and to identify any areas that are narrow or blocked. She was treated with the standard assortment of drugs and given the standard low-fat, low-cholesterol diet to follow.

Maryanne knew this treatment comes with no promises, and the incidence of worsening heart disease is common. Since she was interested in finding alternative treatments for her heart disease, she investigated the low-carbohydrate approach as recommended by Dr.

Michael and Mary Dan Eades. Maryanne began the low-carbohydrate diet immediately. She took the blood-thinning drug and the cholesterol lowering statin drug prescribed but quickly developed unpleasant side effects she attributed to the cholesterol-lowing drug.

Warfarin Coumadin to help prevent blood clots by decreasing clotting proteins, blood thinner, or anti-coagulant. Clopidogrel Plavix to help prevent blood clots by anti-platelet effects to keep blood flowing smoothly.

Maryanne discontinued the statin drug because of horrible leg cramps and began taking the product listed below with red yeast rice an herbal product with cholesterol-lowering properties , but she discontinued it because it raised her blood pressure.

Her periodic checkups showed continued success, and her doctor was very pleased. He didn't ask what she was eating, and she didn't tell him she was eating lots of fatty red meat and eggs, those same foods he had told her to avoid. She told him she had reduced sugar, fruit, whole grains, starch, legumes, and total carbohydrate consumption. He acknowledged that reducing carbohydrates was helpful.

However, his agreement was contrary to the standard high-carbohydrate diet he had recommended previously and continues to recommend to his other patients. Maryanne did not exercise after her heart attack. She was involved in an automobile accident a few months before her heart attack and suffered from a leg injury.

Her overall activity was much less than that of the average healthy person. Exercise does not prevent heart disease and does not reverse heart disease as claimed.

Maryanne had a major checkup three years following her heart attack. The results were excellent. Her heart specialist said all of her heart arteries were "perfectly clear.

Her doctor was overjoyed. Maryanne is confident her special diet and supplement program will keep the stent in her artery clear. Plugging of stents is a typical occurrence. CT - Total Cholesterol. Dropped from to Soared from 34 to Her low HDL had been a death sentence. Plunged from to 96 to beat her doctor's goal of less than Dropped from 35 to All of her cholesterol readings moved in the good direction.

Her doctor asked her what cholesterol-lowering drug she was taking. She repeated her answer, "None. She eats eggs and all the fatty red meat she wants. She avoids all of the high-carbohydrate foods that were recommended by her doctor. Saturated fat prevents coronary artery disease?

Dietary fats, carbohydrate, and progression of coronary atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. Maryanne gave up the two food categories most often recommended as wonderfully healthy - fruit and whole grains.

Giving up the fruit was most difficult. Fruit is highly addictive, but the fructose sugar in fruit is deadly. It causes insulin resistance and raises the insulin level. Whole grains are bad because they keep insulin at a level higher than desirable. Insulin has been proven to cause plugged heart arteries.

Together, fruit and whole grains are a deadly combination that is only slightly less dangerous than the famous killing duo, sugar, and hydrogenated vegetable oils.

Maryanne told friends and relatives of the wonderful reversal of her heart disease. They responded exactly like her doctor - total disinterest. People rarely bother with a follow-up question. One would think that others with partially plugged heart arteries would be most interested to know how she cleared all of the plaque from her heart, but that is not the case. They have been told so many lies about nutrition and health by "professional experts" that the general public has simply tuned out.

People have given up and are resigned to suffer without any hope of improvements in their health. They just don't believe the professional experts or government recommendations anymore.

Maryanne also had a breathing test performed by her asthma specialists. He found her lung capacity to be perfectly normal. He asked which asthma drug she was on, and she responded, "None. This is an update on Maryanne. She had a complete heart checkup in May, , four years after her heart attack. The results show her artery stent remains perfectly clear, and all of her heart arteries are perfectly clear. She has reversed her heart disease by eating the high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet program shown below.

This diet is the exact opposite of the low-fat diet her doctor initially recommended and continues to recommend. Her attitude has greatly improved as well.

She is cheerful, optimistic, and planning the future with lots of excitement. Coronary Heart Disease, Exams, and Tests. Computed tomography has potential to offer accurate, safer method for detecting artery disease.

Medication errors continue even in highly computerized hospital. Coronary heart disease in women is under-diagnosed, under-treated, and under-researched. Saturated fats don't cause heart disease and never did. David's low-fat diet has caused his hypoglycemia, heart disease, and degenerative disc disease. This is the true story of an acquaintance who has been living according to the recommendations of the American Medical Association AMA , American Heart Association AHA and the American Diabetic Association ADA , but still got hypoglycemia at age 52, plugged heart arteries at age 59, and degenerative disc disease at age This is the story of a real person.

Australians more obese than Americans, study finds - June 19, David is a doctor employed at the local hospital. His wife, Susie, also works there.

They always picked the low-fat selections in the grocery store and ate lots of "healthy" fruit and whole grains. They did recognize the necessity of eating meat, but they always selected the low-fat cuts, removed the visible fat on their plates, and always removed the skin from chicken.

David and Susie were "health nuts. The switch was then made to hiking the mountain where they live and riding bikes on the mountain roads.

Exercise was a major priority. They ran the local 10K race every year. When Susie could no longer run because of her knees, David continued to run the race religiously. It was the highlight of their health activity. David nor Susie was ever fat or overweight. They never went on yo-yo diets because it wasn't necessary. They never smoked or drank alcohol which was very much against their religion and health rules.

They didn't eat many simple carbohydrates like sugar and white flour. They presented bodies that appeared to be the optimum in health, but inside they were sick, sick, sick. By age 52 Dr. David was having blood sugar metabolism problems.

His blood sugar would surge when he ate his normal high-carbohydrate meals but plunge later giving the typical symptoms of someone who is pre-diabetic. Being a doctor, David followed the recommendations of the American Diabetic Association ADA by snacking on peanut butter and crackers between meals in order to keep his blood sugar stable.

David's biggest disadvantage was being a doctor because he believed the nonsense put forth by the above professional societies. The low-fat diet is always high in carbohydrates and produces high blood insulin levels.

David is suffering because he believed the " big fat lies " about the low-fat diet. David was complacent about learning nutritional facts and didn't question recommendations put forth by his professional societies. He didn't do his own research into the history of heart disease.

If he had, he would have discovered that heart disease was so rare in it was not listed in the medical books. He didn't realize the cookbooks of the era show people eating lots of saturated fat in the form of pork lard, beef suet, butter, eggs, and coconut oil. Eating the skin from chicken and turkey was considered the "best part of the bird. David still doesn't realize the low-fat diet is an attempt by vegetarians to discourage the eating of animals and has nothing to do with healthy nutrition.

He doesn't realize how deadly carbohydrates like fruit, bread, whole grains, cereals, sugar, flour, rice, legumes, potatoes, and soy really are. David and Susie were proud that they considered themselves health and diet extremists. They followed the popular exercise and diet recommendations to the letter. They still think the USDA Food Guide Pyramid is a healthy way of eating because it is fully supported by his professional medical societies.

David is now forced to decide which mechanical method to use to unplug his heart arteries. He doesn't believe diet and exercise can help. What can he eat? He has been on the recommended low-fat diet for many years. His exercise has been unrelenting. His lifestyle was in perfect accordance with all the recommendations. His doctors will no doubt recommend the same diet for the cure when actually it was the cause of his heart disease.

David is in big trouble. What does a doctor do now? His erroneous training had double-crossed him, and he doesn't even know it. David's declining health hasn't stopped there.

He developed degenerative disc disease in his back that required the fusing of two vertebrae. He and Susie still eat lots of fresh fruit, dried fruit, and yogurt with fruit as recommended by his profession for healthy bones.

Now she has been diagnosed with cancer and has had a heart pacemaker implanted in her chest. They do not realize their high-carbohydrate diet is slowly killing them. Metabolic syndrome prevalent in heart attack patients. The Framingham study also found that those who ate the most saturated fat, the most calories, and the most cholesterol were the most physically active.

They also weighed the least and had the lowest levels of serum cholesterol. The people who ate the most saturated fat were the most healthy and had the lowest risk of heart disease.

These were fixed with stents 4 total , and when I was told in October that the next procedure would be a bypass, I decided to explore other health remedies. I had already stopped smoking, lost a lot of weight through calorie restriction lbs down to lbs and did multiple vigorous cardio workouts each week after my first June heart attack, but I was still eating low fat and high carb until October when my last blockage occurred by the way, my last two attacks occurred after vigorous exercise.

It was at this time that I discovered your website and tried the diet you recommend. My cardiologist was supportive except for the high fat part, of course , and my blood work was awesome after a month on this diet, and I was allowed to discontinue two cholesterol medications, an anxiety medication and my beta blocker blood pressure medicine. I also believe the magnesium supplements, a reduction in hard cheese and the potassium chloride salt substitute have corrected my atrial fibrillation.

Notice that this gentlemen continued to suffer heart artery blockage even after following his doctor's recommendation of a low-fat diet, stopping smoking, exercise, good weight loss and taking many drugs.

It just didn't work. My triglycerides were dangerously sitting at so I took his advice, stopped drinking so much pop, started eating what I thought was a healthy diet, and I eventually quit smoking. I'm 28 years old, and I had chest pains for at least 8 years. In the last few years I started getting the same sharp pains in my head. At one point I even quit eating meat because of the chest pains, but they were always there. One day I ran into your website while searching for something that would clean blood clots, and from that day forward the sharp pains faded.

It's been about 45 days on this diet, but the pains were completely gone within days. I honestly haven't felt them since that day when I ate a package of bacon and a about 3 pounds of hamburger. I ate lots and lots of fatty meats, real butter, eggs, green beans mixed with butter and started feeling a lot more energetic and positive.

I always use to day dream in school, and now I know that was caused from sugar withdrawals. I am now sugar free. I've lost 15 pounds after years of being stuck at no matter what I did. I will always remember you as someone who saved and changed my life forever. Thank You very much. The Merck Manual states that taking a treadmill or exercise stress test causes 1 in persons to suffer a heart attack or death.

This is said to be "a small risk," but in fact it is an outrageous rate. If one person in had a heart attack or died while mowing the lawn, the daily death rate in the United States during summer would in the hundreds of thousands. Keep in mind that a high percentage of those taking the treadmill stress test have mild or no heart disease and are not at risk whatsoever. The test proves they didn't have a heart attack at that energy level.

Others who have artery blockage severe enough to be detected by the test are at an extreme risk of heart attack or death on the treadmill. A test that shows a positive result upon death of the patient is absolutely ridiculous. The doctor tells the family members of the deceased, "Yep, he had heart disease all right.

Medical treadmill stress tests can place an enormous load on the heart. This is especially dangerous for a person who has been diagnosed with heart disease or is suspected of having heart disease. The work load on the heart is a function of the heart rate pulse time the blood pressure differential. The following formula shows the typical heart overload on an elderly man who was in fairly good shape. The top numbers represent heart rate times blood pressure differential during the treadmill stress and the bottom numbers represent the same at rest.

The overload of the heart during the test was 8. This overload on the heart of the elderly person was outrageous. A massive class action lawsuit should be brought against the professional medical community by relatives of those people killed as a result of a medical treadmill heart stress test. This class action lawsuit would be similar to that brought against the tobacco industry and the asbestos fiber industry for causing cancer in people exposed to those products.

Nearly everyone has heard of a friend, relative, or neighbor who went to his heart doctor for an examination that included a treadmill stress test. In many cases, the patient is aware of a heart condition and has been suffering from symptoms of heart disease. The standard medical procedure for the treadmill heart stress test is to stress the heart to the point of damage that is confirmed by the instruments.

The typical instruments are electrocardiogram ECG or echocardiogram. The patient is then told he has a heart problem.

The point of damage is actually a mild heart attack. Many times the patient has a very serious heart attack right on the treadmill, collapses, and dies soon thereafter. More commonly, the patient goes home where he suffers a serious heart attack within hours or days and often dies. His death was caused by the doctor's unnecessary and dangerous test.

The death is easily dismissed because the patient was suffering from heat disease. This practice is not unlike the past medical practice of draining blood from the patient until he finally succumbed.

Never, never, ever take this kind of treadmill heart stress test. A treadmill heart stress test does not rule out coronary artery disease. It does not measure the amount of plaque in the heart arteries. A person can be given a good report by the doctor while having several arteries half plugged with plaque without either of them knowing it. Treadmill stress test is not definitive, and it is dangerous.

The name for this test is a Radionuclide Imaging or Radionuclide Angiography. This test is more predictable if the condition of the arteries has already been determined by an angiography , magnetic resonance angiography MRA or multislice spiral computed tomography MSCT.

Even so any treadmill stress test is dangerous for the elderly. A nuclear isotope treadmill stress test is an accurate method for measuring blood flow to all areas of the heart during rest and under stress.

A radioactive isotope is injected in a vein of the arm while the patient is at rest. The patient then lies horizontally on the table of a machine, where a detector rotates about the chest area of the body. The arms are placed above the head in a position that becomes very uncomfortable for the minute duration.

The device takes a second exposure before rotating in increments for a total of 30 exposures. The radiation from the heart creates a picture of the blood flow. The radiology exposures give a very precise picture of the blood flow in all heart arteries and heart muscle. It shows the exact amount of artery blockage caused by plaque, artery fat, or other defects. It also shows areas of the heart muscle that may have been damaged by an earlier heart attack and the exact extent of the resulting scar tissue.

The resting test should be evaluated to determine the extent of the artery restrictions before proceeding to the treadmill stress test, but it rarely is. The report for the resting test and the stress test usually follows by a day or more. The treadmill stress test cannot be postponed because the radioactive isotopes have a very limited life. Therefore, one of the other tests should be done in advance to determine the condition of the arteries before taking this or any other treadmill stress test.

The patient is then taken to the treadmill, where ECG sensors are attacked. The maximum rate is calculated as minus the age.

The patient is injected with another shot of the radioactive isotope one minute before the treadmill is allowed to be stopped. He is then taken immediately back to the radiology machines for another minute session of 30 pictures.

The resting pictures and stress pictures are read analyzed by a radiologist who prepares the report. This test is often used after placement of a stent or after artery bypass surgery as a tool to determine the effectiveness of the treatment and the condition of the heart.

It can also be used several years later for an ongoing evaluation of the patient's heart condition. It is a tool for detecting if stents, bypass arteries and other arteries are becoming plugged. However, the test could cause the patient to have another heart attack if any artery problems exist. Insulin is a Heart Disease-Causing Hormone. Insulin is a hormone made by the beta cells in the islets of langerhans in the pancreas.

Body cells require insulin in order to use blood glucose. Insulin is a powerful anabolic hormone. The word anabolic means to build up, and insulin certain does this in a powerful way. Insulin pushes blood glucose into cells, where it produces energy in the form of work and heat. Insulin is needed to convert excess blood glucose to triglyceride fatty acid. The insulin moves blood triglycerides in body fat cells for storage primarily as saturated fat.

Most people don't understand that carbohydrates in low-fat whole grain bread and orange juice can be converted by the body to saturated body fat on the tummy and hips. Carbohydrate intake is correlated with biomarkers for coronary heart disease in a population of overweight premenopausal women.

Insulin packs glycated LDL cholesterol, glycated proteins, glycated hemoglobin, and oxidized polyunsaturated omega-6 vegetable fatty acids into arteries of the heart, neck, and legs peripheral arterial disease , causing blockages and death. Deposits in the neck arteries cause strokes. Insulin causes heart disease. A high level of blood insulin causes many unhealthy body reactions which eventually lead to diseases of all types. Glucose from the excessive consumption of carbohydrates is turned into body fat by insulin.

The insulin also deposits glycated LDL cholesterol and oxidized polyunsaturated omega-6 vegetable fatty acids into the arteries of the heart, neck, and legs causing heart attacks, strokes, blood clots, and other diseases. These aspects include overview of non-edible oil resources, advantages of non-edible oils, problems in exploitation of non-edible oils, fatty acid composition profiles FAC of various non-edible oils, oil extraction techniques, technologies of biodiesel production from non-edible oils, biodiesel standards and characterization, properties and characteristic of non-edible biodiesel and engine performance and emission production.

As a conclusion, it has been found that there is a huge chance to produce biodiesel from non-edible oil sources and therefore it can boost the future production of biodiesel. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads.

By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Check Access Check Access. Author links open overlay panel A. Silitonga a b H. Laminar Flow Streamlined Flow: The air over land is of higher pressure because the land, heated during the day, is warmer than the water. La Niña "the girl": An intensification of normal conditions in North America, stormy in the northwest and dry in the southwest. The opposite of an El Niño. Triggers huge landslides in recently deforested areas.

Laterites rich in aluminium oxides are mined for their aluminium ore. An east-west line connecting places of the same latitude is a parallel. Latitude is measured in degrees, minutes, and seconds.

In other words, life gets richer toward the equator and less so nearer the poles. According to Bill Mollision see Permaculture , cultivated lawns go back to the British Empire and the country estate, both in the business of taming the natural world. Their demand for water is second only to that of agricultural irrigation. Many require petroleum products to maintain and to fertilize, and pesticides to keep pristine despite their ecological vulnerability.

Pesticides, fertilizers, poisons from mines or feedlots, and wastes from industrial plants sometimes leach into groundwater. Leaching also refers to washing the salt from soil to increase its fertility. All legumes contribute to the nitrogen, phosphorus key to flowering and seed formation , and potassium nutrition of the crops that follow. Alfalfa is the heaviest nitrogen producer. Levees built to containn floods can actually accelerate floodwaters by narrowing natural channels.

Used to make rattan. Ynestra King's term for politics grounded in care and relationships, in eros rather than logos only. The alga makes sugar through photosynthesis, and the fungi fills out the organism while holding it to a surface rocks, bark, etc. Lichens pioneer harsh or sparse environments, provide food for grazers, and break down rocks through chemical weathering. Hart Merriam in to classify environments by temperature and rainfall.

There are eight major life zones: Limestone is often added to cement and other construction materials, including blocks and facings. Limnology is the study of lakes and ponds. With proteins and carbohydrates, membrane-strengthening lipids provide cells with their structure. When earthquakes trigger it, walls, dams, buildings, and foundations are liable to collapse.

Frequent near coastal developments and areas of poor drainage. Its erosion forms "cat steps" that slide off each other. A frequent component of fertile topsoil. A line connecting places of the same longitude is a meridian. It is measured in degrees, minutes, and seconds.

Unlike latitude, longitude cannot take the poles and equator as fixed points of reference. It must rely more on time, which is why accurate long-voyage navigation had to await the invention of an accurate timepiece. Soils lacking one or more of them are sometimes given amendments to add what's needed. It might have evolved from scrapie , a similar disease that infects sheep and goats.

In Britain, the practice of feeding cattle with the remains of other cattle not known to have been infected helped spread the disease in the mids. Given how the meat packing industry treats them anyway, no wonder the cows are mad.

Lava is exposed magma. The poles occasionally switch, also, which last happened , years ago. It shields the Earth from the highly charged plasma mostly hydrogen particles of the solar wind that emanates from the sun. Vandana Shiva's term for what usually goes by the name of development and in actuality results in widespread poverty and ecological destruction. Maldevelopment contrasts with "realwealth," the actual richness and diversity of a community.

Why does progress so often look like destruction? About 5, species in all, and all descended from a common ancestor of the anteater, platypus, marsupials like the kangaroo, and placentals. The extinction of the dinosaurs Their trunks block wind, and their roots provide habitats and a barrier to erosion. Limestone marble is white. Marbles like those played with on street corners were once made of marble; the common method of shooting one is called fulking no kidding. It's considered impolite to fulk with another person's marbles without permission.

It tends to soften temperature extremes. Used as a fertilizer or a source of lime for lime-poor soils. The mass extinction now underway threatens more than half the animals on Earth, some of whom have already vanished; others, like the great apes, are about to.

For a tribute to what no longer lives, see the Altars of Extinction project online. Tends to occur at higher elevations. Contributes to soil cohesion and the formation of helpful colloids. Its larvae also eat vegetables and nuts. Yellow-brown with reddish purple eyes. Chemical sprays do not control them effectively because of the brief time it takes the adult to lay eggs below the surface of the offspring's future food source.

Braconid wasps and other parasites seem to do a more thorough job see Biocontrol. Lewis Mumford's term for a mechanical sequestering of human energy into rigid social hierarchies. His examples include the labor force that built the Pyramids and the armies of both World Wars.

The macrofauna like fish depend on them for food. Because each must contain half a future offspring's DNA one set from the father and one from the mother , the kind of cell division mitosis used elsewhere will not work--it would double the amount of DNA needed. To prevent this, meiosis turns a cell containing 46 chromosomes into four sex cells containing 23 chromosomes each haploids through an initial extra stage that mixes chromosomes. Aside from that stage, meiosis is like Mitosis.

Recent research supports Susan Blackmore's theory that the human brain evolved rapidly to make itself a better habitat for human memes. Such memes would be available for sexual selection. Different sorts of meristem make the various tissues some for bark, some for leaves, etc. Merophytes build much of a plant, the leaves and stems in particular.

About half of mesocyclones spawn tornados. All the physical and chemical factors in the production anabolism and breakdown catabolism of protoplasm and energy. Metabolism is the fire of biological life. Called prograde metamorphism when the change agents are intensifying, and retrograde when they are decreasing.

A frequent occurrence below the Earth's surface. Metamorphic rocks make up most of the planet's crust. Although local groups might die out, the migrants keep the species alive. Term coined by Richard Levins, Can be used to offset too much heat, light, or cold in the surrounding area. Which implies that the two are as separate as self and world were thought to be another Cartesian gem.

A more profound philosopher spoke to this centuries before Descartes and his coordinate-plane approach: When you wrack your brain trying to unify things without knowing that they are already one, it is called "three in the morning.

So he said, "How about four in the morning and three in the evening? Over 2, varieties have been discovered. In archeology, the replacement of fossil bone with water-borne minerals.

The implied dualism is older than Descartes. Mitochondria also regulate bodily heat and refine the oxygen that would otherwise poison us. They look like upturned pillbugs. Some tiny marine protozoans are mixotrophs. Chemistry is the scientific study of molecular reactions. The measurements are more physically precise than the Richter Scale it replaced.

See Polyclimax Theory for a less capitalistic perspective. Caused by sedimentary rocks bending over a fault line. This generally requires large quantities of artificial fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides, nematocides, and other potentiall toxic measures to kill bugs and increase yield. Even with these chemical aids, monocultures are prone to disease outbreaks and pest infestations.

Wes Jackson New Roots for Agriculture: Monoculture invites pests, diseases, erosion. Common near the Indian Ocean. Wetter than a heath but drier than a bog. Often acidic, cold, and rich in carbon content. They prefer dark, moist locations. The tunnel reaches downward until it spreads over the underlying bedrock. In the case of Greenland and Antartica, moulins are lubricating the remaining sheets of ice from below, making it easier for them to snap off and melt in the sea.

Even compost is basically treated mulch. Mulching a garden reduces erosion, conserves soil moisture, inhibits weed growth, and provides the soil with organic matter. Can be symbiotic or nonsymbiotic. Similar to a virus. The fungus is nourished and housed by the roots it transports soil nutrients into.

Almost nothing green would grow without this symbiosis. Masanobu Fukuoka's method for letting roots till the soil instead of machines. Decrease cultivation and you decrease weeds. Leguminous cover crops and mulching instead of fertilizer. Fukuoka practices what he calls the "no-plowing, no-fertilizing, no-weeding, no-pesticides, do-nothing method of natural farming. His rice yields have been impressive. He reads like kind of a nut: The bat that hears better than the rest stands a better chance of living long enough to pass on that kind of hearing.

In this way certain favorable genes--favorable to adapting to environment pressures--gradually become more numerous in a given population. Discovered by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace in rather, discovered years earlier by both; Darwin beat Wallace to the press in Whether the environment shapes completely passive life-material or interacts with an emerging and ever-more-conscious creative potentiality is a most interesting current debate.

Because the sun and moon stand at right angles to each other, their tidal pulls partially nullify each other, resulting in a lesser tide. Contrast with Spring Tide.

Can be parasitic as with the trichina and the hookworm or free-living. Neurons were thought to work somewhat like electric switches: These chemicals then trigger a pulse or inhibit one in other neurons. As it turns out, however, each neuron is more like a microchip than a simple switch.

How much of the brain a person uses at once, or regularly, is another matter. The adult brain contains about 10 billion neurons, with the brain as a whole drawing watts of power, and with an ultimate storage capacity of very roughly terrabytes: It's hard to estimate because each dendrite contacts about 10, other neurons in extraordinarily complicated neural nets.

Some venoms are neurotoxins that paralyze the prey. To take a leaf from George Carlin's book, this is one of those ideas like walking up to someone, declaring, "I have nothing to say to you," and walking away.

Neutrons and protons make up most of the atom's mass. Falls occur at nickpoints. Artificially manufactured nitrates are used in fertilizers and explosives. Nitrogen Cycle or Nitrification: Bacteria, legumes, and algae convert atmospheric nitrogen into nitrates that enter plant roots before turning into protoplasm that decomposers eventually break down again. Examples include lead, mercury, arsenic, plastics, and synthetics. The resulting heat drives electric generators.

Although the average nuclear plant creates tons of highly toxic byproducts and wastes a year, no one has thought up a safe way to deal with it plutonium has a half-life of 24, years. The tilt makes seasons possible because at any given position in the Earth's orbit around the Sun, half of the planet will lean toward the sun as the other half leans away from it. Often composed of rhyolite.

Franciscan priest William of Occam's admonition against unnecessary plurality in explanations of something not understood. In other words, simple explanations requiring fewer assumptions crop circles are cut by pranksters on tractors tend to work better than those requiring more assumptions crop circles are cut by extraterrestrials who come here by an unknown means to make designs through an unknown method for unknown reasons before departing again without leaving any other evidence of their visit.

Chalquist Trimming of Occam's Razor: Ocean Floor Abyssal Plain: The plates are about 75 kilometers thick. Volcanism at the mid-ocean ridges produced them million years ago. Its dark, spellbinding, "oildorado" properties include convincing large groups of people to vote against cheap public transportation and elevating pirates and robber barons into heads of nation-states.

Logging old growth forests triggers ecological consequences, some known loss of water, rainfall, habitat, oxygen, carbon, etc. Paul Shepard's term for the emotional and spiritual stunting that results from growing up in a civilization at war with nature and afraid of close contact with anything wild. An example would be socializing hordes of people to be impulsive consumers, thereby strengthening their least mature tendencies while curtailing their capacity for critical thought.

The fact that millions of people share the same vices does not make these vices virtues, the fact that they share so many errors does not make the errors to be truths, and the fact that millions of people share the same forms of mental pathology does not make these people sane. The basic aim is to grow things naturally with a minimum of mechanical interference. Organic farming grew in popularity from Sir Albert Howard's published observations of Indian farming techniques Fairview Gardens, an organic farm and blossoming outpost of urban agriculture flourishing in Goleta, California.

Originally developed by the Nazis during the s for use as bioweapons--"weapons of mass production," as President Bush would say. Currently the most popular class of pesticides. Chemicals from poisons and explosives, tractors from caterpillar-treaded tanks: They rise as continental plates smash together case in point: Often results in rain on the windward side and a dry rain shadow on the lee side. Some fish do this to help them move among waters that vary in salinity.

Ancient outgassing produced most of the Earth's atmosphere. The second billion arrived in a mere century, the third in 44 years, and the fourth in 12 years. See Crash and Dieback.

The ovary becomes the fruit. The protective ozone layer hangs 10 to 50 kilometers above the Earth's surface. It irritates the eyes. There seem to have been at least two other supercontinents before Pangaea. Used to study how patches of invasive species impact an ecosystem, among other things. Not to be confused with the actings out of Patch Adams, a famous and dynamic doctor arrested for protesting naked in San Francisco.

From the air they resemble beads on a cord. Certain viruses, bacteria, and authoritarian flag-waving fanatics are common examples of pathogens. They tend to be parasites that weaken the organisms they feed upon until self-protective systems get rid of them. Fifty common chlorine compounds that grow stronger as they move up the food chain. Odorless and tasteless, they came from electronics manufacturing until laws were passed to forbid their production and release.

They are still plentiful in the air, soil, and water, however. Symptoms vary from depression, rashes, and acne to gastrointestinal and liver damage. Once laughed at by conservatives and pro-industrial energy advocates, the idea now gains ground as oil production continues to drop and gasoline prices soar.

The driving force is usually a bitter blend of perfectionistic fussiness and nerdy narcissism. The sight of psychologists, ecologists, and academics engaged in heated struggles about the definition of an ecological concept while the ecosphere burns is a lamentable one. Often seen in dry regions. Perennials tend to take longer to produce a food yield than the quick-growing annuals so heavily exploited by traditional agriculture, but they last longer and do better in marginal soils.

Usually refers to landforms shaped by glaciation. Perihelion occurs on the 3rd or 4th of January. The opposite of Aphelion. Some of the heavier elements only exist in laboratories. According to Holmgren, permaculture is the use of systems principles and design thinking to make landscapes that mimic the patterns and relationships found in nature while yielding abundant food, fibre, and energy for human needs. Emphasis is on multi-use plants, cultural practices like sheet mulching and trellising, and encouraging animals to recycle nutrients and graze weeds.

Community planning includes energy-efficient buildings, waste water treatment, and growing healthy soils as well as plants. Shale is porous and therefore permeable, as is sand and gravel; granite and clay are not. Too many pests mean not enough predators, like fish or birds for mosquitos and gopher snakes for gophers, who also avoid daffodils, elderberry cuttings, and castor beans.

Teas made of chamomile, stinging nettle, comfrey, or horsetail discourage harmful fungi. Marigolds control whiteflies, spearmint, tansy, and pennyroyal control ants, Mexican marigold controls nematodes and root pests, as do French marigolds; yellow nasturtiums decoy black aphids, which are repelled by spearmint, stinging nettle, southernwood, and garlic, and borage repels tomato worms while attracting helpful bees.

Substances with a pH below 7. Acids tend to be sour and corrosives, and bases alkaline compounds the opposite, and slippery. Rainy climates tend to produce acidic soil, dry climates alkaline soil. For growing food, soil pH should fall between 6.

Lime is sometimes added to acidic soil and sulfur to alkaline soil. The more humus in the soil to buffer it, the less pH impacts fertility. Always requires an exchange of energy, whether an increase or decrease. Phenotypes are the aspect visible to natural selection: The phenotype extends to the organism's environment: Automobile and industrial exhausts are major contributors.

Beams of light are composed of photons. Plants do it with a light-sensitive organelle called the chloroplast. Photosynthesis gave us not only food, but the atmosphere we breathe. Upon their photosynthetic selves hang the food webs of the oceans. Many annuals are pioneer species. Many tend to be invasive. Carpels ovule-bearing leaves compose it, and stamens, petals and sepals ring it. A flower without stamens is a pistillate. Our cultural preferrence for space to place survived even the Einsteinian destruction of categories like absolute time and space: Casey points out, for example, the word morality goes back to a term for "custom," whereas the word ethics refers ultimately to the place where the horses went home at night.

Ed Casey's term for the felt, lived reconnection of space and place. An example is how the self experiences itself as firmly located somewhere specific rather than feeling lost in a sea of plots or coordinates. In the mids, placer mining by pick and pan gave way to powerful hydraulic hoses that washed away entire hillsides.

Larger organisms graze them like grass. As far back as , Alfred Wegener noted that the continents fit together like puzzle pieces into some lost whole see Pangaea, a name he coined. He was ignored, but in , Arthur Holmes decided that thermal convection currents in the mantle could move continents around.

These ideas also account for where the seafloor comes from molten material emitted through cracks between plates , how some of it disappears when the edge of one plate vanishes under another-- subduction , and why volcanic and mountain-building activity so often surfaces in belts plate edges. Also, a dry desert lake bed.

Mutations often do this. To use the example of Richard Dawkins, genes function not as blueprints, but as recipes. Late in the 7th century, northern peasants began using a new type of plow, equipped with a vertical knife to cut a furrow, a horizontal blade to slice under the surface, and a moldboard to turn it over: Rotating crosses called windmills pumped water from the sinking Netherlands, an effort first funded by the church.

Named after Pluto, god of the underworld, whose name also means "wealth. Tends to build outwards. Also, an animal without horns e. Contrast with Monoclimax Theory. Some are used in pesticides. Aside from causing cancer, their impact on humans is unknown, although test animals exposed to them lost the ability to reproduce. Not all polymers are organic, although most are. Human hair and skin color are polymorphous. Often used for toxicity testing of a nearby body of water.

Sometimes obtained from wood ashes. Its soils are usually fertile. Precession of the Equinoxes: The planet spins unevenly like a top on a table, pulled on by the sun and moon. It takes approximately 26, years to accomplish one complete wobble.

Because of it, the spring equinox--the point where the Sun crosses the celestial equator late every March--appears from the earthly point of view to be sliding out of the constellation of Pisces and into Aquarius. Very common in rocky intertidals. Primary producers form the foundation of the food web. Photochemical smog is a secondary air pollutant: Making them drains most of the nutrients out; processing them adds nutrients back in.

Companies that sell processed food have begun marketing low-fat versions because of obesity concerns. A steady diet of processed meats hotdogs, hamburgers, etc. Stating that "Progress is inevitable" without mentioning who profits from such an aggressive ideology is like stating that "Rudolf the Red-Nosed Reindeer is a part of Christmas" without mentioning that Rudolf was invented in by Montgomery Ward as part of a holiday advertising blitz.

Rudolf's original name was Rollo, but they canned it because it announced the conquest theme too openly. Roughly synonymous with bacteria, but divided into eubacteria and archaeans. Methods include division separating one plant into several , ground layering bending a shoot from the parent plant into the soil so it will root there , budding inserting a parent plant bud into a second plant's rootstock , and grafting joining a stem from a parent plant onto a second plant's rootstock.

Protein constitutes the bulk of living matter, gives it structure, and has something to do in almost every aspect of cell operation. Examples include flagellates, amoebas, ciliates, sporozoa, radiolaria, and slime molds. Some microalgae are photosynthetic; most are microscopic; all sit at the base of the food web.

The number of protons determines the nature of an element: Usually classed with the protists. Candidates include branches with a lot of bulk but little foliage, weak branches, V-shaped crotch branches, water sprouts, crisscrossed branches, double leaders, shaded branches, and crown sprouts. Some bottom-feeding organisms eat it. An earthquake's first large jolt. Primary producers are at the bottom and predators are at the top. Pyramid of Energy Flow Trophic Pyramid: Many small organisms are needed to feed relatively few larger ones.

Although the quark is our current most fundamental particle, some physicists suspect that in a universe of shifting relational energies, the very notion of a smallest chunk of building block is wrong-headed. A chief component of sand and therefore sandstone. It is the second most abundant mineral after feldspar and is common in continental crust but rarer in oceanic crust. Rainforest coverage prevents desertification and drought and hosts more than half the world's animal species.

Every day unchecked industrial development flattens a patch of rainforest the size of New York City. Clouds have often been drained of rainwater by the time they reach it over the mountain. Contrast with Fundamental Niche. The reductant transfers electrons to the oxidant. Redox reactions transfer biological energy.

In photosynthesis, carbon dioxide is reduced into sugars; in respiration, sugars are oxidized to make carbon dioxide and water. Some lab evidence suggests that sexual reproducers fend off parasites more efficiently than asexual reproducers. Red Queen refers to a chess piece in Lewis Carroll's book Through the Looking Glass who tells Alice that one must run just to stay in place. Red tides can cause fish kills and infect shellfish with biotoxins. The mouse that makes it into the hole escapes the cat.

An important habitat for both plants and animals who cannot make a home in solid rock. This includes giving key decision-making power, economic and political, to locals who know what the place where they live needs.

The oceans' residence time is roughly 40, years. By contrast, the average turnover time of a stream is about two weeks. In cells, the conversion of food e. In most organisms, respiration releases the energy that drives metabolism.

Often associated with a deterioration in the environment. Even when cleaned, returned water of a temperature different than where it heads can be damaging, as when heated water from a power plant kills fish in an estuary.

A potato is a thickened rhizome. Found in ferns, horsetails, and asparagus. Formed by either the submergence of a continental landmass or a sea level rise. A sample with 50 species is richer than a sample with 5. Created in California by Charles Richter.

See Moment Magnitude Scale. In streams pools often alternate with riffles. Often volcanic, and a site of new sea floor. It is possible that the African Rift Valley separated an apelike ancestor into two groups, thereby allowing us to evolve separately from today's chimpanzees.

Riparian zones exchange organic matter between wet and dry habitats and regulate erosion, sedimentation, temperature, and nutrients. Turkey has relied on this argument to take water from the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers even though Syria and Iraq also depend on it.

The argument is specious: Sometimes used as a synonym for riparian. The RNA molecule is identical to DNA from which it is made except for the sugar ribose instead of deoxyribose and uracil for thymine. Its slope is gentle where the ice advanced and jagged and plucked on the other side.

Rocks are composed of crystals: Often seen in UFO photographs. Interrupts cycles of weeds, diseases, and insects; builds organic matter, improves soil structure. The most common protein on earth.

Ruminants include cattle, bison, sheep, deer, goats, elk, giraffes, antelopes, and camels. Their specialized stomach evolved to extract the maximum of nutrients from low-quality food. Seawater averages 34 ppt. Around the world, million acres of once-arable land are too salty to grow food in. Heavily salinized land is not arable until the salt is leached out of it.

Several civilizations have fallen because of the resulting ecological damage. Also, compounds produced when an acid's hydrogen atom is replaced by a metal atom.

Also, what unscrupulous fast food restaurants do with french fries and potato chips in order to sell more drinks to thirsty customers. Porous sandstone layers often hold water in aquifers. Fungi and bacteria are examples. Also, to nick and weaken a seed coat enough for germination. It splits along parallel bedding planes. Often found in the company of tourmaline and garnet. Also, a plant whose deep roots and small leaves resist water loss. Named after the infected sheep's habit of scraping its itchy skin against trees and bushes.

Common in dry and alpine regions. Shaped from eroded headlands. Second Law of Thermodynamics: This is why trophic levels in a food web narrow as they rise. Grass-like plant that is adapted to grow in moist habitats. John Keats saw some withered from the lake. Limestone, chert, halite, chalk, shale, sandstone.

Using organic and mineral material to create the pellet stresses the environment less.