Also of Interest
Boas and Pythons Colubrids Other. How to Dry Roast mealworms Place your live mealworms in a colander and toss and rinse them under cool water. A family business at heart with a team of extremely knowledgeable, loyal, dedicated staff, we aim to help you find the right products for your customers at the right price. These are the oldest impressions of hair on synapsids. Among those, two of the most problematic species are the lesser, or red, panda Ailurus fulgens and the giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca. Info provided by Rob at Great Lakes Hornworm. An example of how far we've come concerns what we veterinarians, 30 years ago, used to call "All Meat Dogs.
Goitrogens can induce hypothyroidism and depress thyroidal function. Goitrogens work by interfering with the thyroidal uptake of iodine. Iodine restriction will cause the thyroid to increase in size in an effort to filter more blood to get more iodine. Please see the notes column to find out what foods contain goitrogens.
When freezing green vegetables, especially the leafy greens, the thiamine vitamin B1 will leach out. When frozen greens are fed over a long period of time and no provision is made for adding the thiamine back into the diet, a deficiency, hypothiaminosis , will occur.
This causes tremors and twitches, which resemples MBD. Just a note on vitamin C Vitamin C is water soluble, just like the B vitamins. This just means that the vitamins are absorbed by water and the extra is excreted in feces.
In other words, you can't overdose on these vitamins like you can with vitamin A and D3. The rate at which Beardies use vitamin C is not yet known.
Not all of these food items listed below are recommended to feed to your beardie. You're probably wondering why I would put items like spaghetti and tofu on this list. It's simple, if I get requests for nutrition info on food items, I'll include that info on this chart for everyone to see. But that doesn't mean that I'm recommending it as safe or a staple.
Please refer to the color chart below to help you decide what is a good staple to feed on a daily basis, what should be fed on occasion or as a treat, or never fed at all. Remember - use your best judgement when choosing foods for your beardie.
I came up with the color coded chart to help get you started. It is based on how I feed my beardies, lots of research, and vets I have spoken to. The following sites have some really good info regarding the oxalate content of specific fruits and veggies. Beware - there are several sites out there with misleading oxalate content info on them! Reptiles who have been starved to the point of emaciation will require rehydration before nutritional support can be started.
The following routes of administration are for these exceptional needs, not for administering basic maintenance fluids on a daily basis to an otherwise healthy reptile. In mammals, fluids are generally given by IV as it is the most direct and efficient way to get the fluids into and circulated throughout the body.
Unfortunately, this is tricky at best when it comes to reptiles, as anyone who has ever tried to draw blood from a major blood vein in a reptile knows.
Since fluids are most often administered at home by the reptile keeper, most of whom do not have experience hitting a vein intentionally and repeatedly in their reptiles, there are other ways that are easier, though it may cause the reptile keeper more stress than it does their reptile.
PO per os Giving fluids or anything else by mouth to reptiles can be difficult, given the vast numbers of sharp teeth, the glottis , and often cranky disposition a sick reptile may have. When dealing with venomous reptiles, matters are rather compounded by the fact that you may get more than a few teeth left behind in a bite wound. When giving fluids by mouth, you need to watch out for the glottis that sits on the tongue at the back of the mouth in most reptiles; in chameleons and snakes, the glottis will be behind the tongue sheath.
When expressing fluids or liquid nutrition slurries into a reptile, do it slowly enough so that it flows down towards the stomach, rather than so fast that it backs up into the mouth. If fluid or slurry backs up into a reptiles mouth, stop forcing the fluid or slurry through the tube. Tilt the reptile with its head downward to let the fluid or slurry run out of his mouth and let him catch his breath.
For the most rapid uptake of PO fluids, they should be warmed before being administered. The advantage of administering fluids in this way is that they are more quickly absorbed and more fluid can be administered at one time than when giving fluids by mouth or subcutaneous injection.
The problem with this route of administration is that you need to be shown how to do it, where to place the needle, and watch the slant of the needle. If done incorrectly, you could puncture an organ or the intestine. This is not something to attempt do to on your own without first being shown how and without someone, initially at least, to restrain the reptile for you so that you can concentrate on the injection itself.
A mark can be made on most reptiles, using povidone-iodine or even nail polish formaldehyde and tuolene free , around the injection site to help you remember. Insert the needle between two scales, not through a scale. Lizards the right side of the lower abdomen to avoid the urinary bladder Chelonians the loose skin cranial to the rear legs.
Snakes the lower third of the body due to the need to avoid the lung s. The needle, held at a slant, is inserted between the scales deep enough to get through the skin. The fluid is then expressed slowly out of the syringe. If more fluid than can be injected at one site must be administered, remove the needle and insert in another site.
Preferred sites for subcutaneous injections are: Lizards shoulder blade area Chelonians in the loose skin in the shoulder areas Snakes midway between the muscle groups along either side of the spine on the back and the lateral midline of the body.
Injections made in the shoulder area need to avoid the neck cervical to avoid any damage that could lead to neurological complications. Intramuscular IM Medications are most often injected Intramuscularly in the muscle. Locations for IM injections are: Lizards in the muscle groups in the front legs or in the muscles along the back and neck Chelonians in the muscle groups in the front legs or in the muscles in the shoulder area Snakes midway between the muscle groups along either side of the spine on the back and the lateral midline of the body.
Choosing The Route of Administration As can be seen, different types of injections have different requirements: Not all reptiles are designed in the same way, making one type of injection or another difficult or impossible. For example, chameleons have very thin, poorly muscled legs, making it difficult to give medications IM. Chameleons, anoles and day geckos tend to get very highly stressed when handled, especially when handling is combined with the pain of an injection.
The injection itself can cause pain and discoloration, and the psychological stress may lead to a worsening of the condition, or at least a delay in recovery. On the other hand, it may be easier to secure a venomous snakes head and administer an injection in the body, than try to insert a pill or oral syringe into its mouth. When it comes to a 15 foot crocodile with a serious attitude, it is easier to hide the medication in a morsel of food and toss it to him.
Hiding oral medication in food is certainly an option, but it should be the least amount of food necessary to mask the medication. Food will interfere with the uptake of the medication, so use this method only if absolutely necessary, and don't top dress the reptile's usual meal with it.
A small piece of fruit or leafy green works for herbivores and omnivore. For omnivores and carnivores, insert a pill into the mouth of a prekilled mouse, or inject the fluid medication into the prekilled mouse's abdomen or mouth. Again, the prey should not be meal-sized, just big enough for the predator to grab and swallow. For insect and fish eaters, you will have to use a pill-pusher or syringe with a feeding or dosing tube attached to give oral mediations.
Renal-Portal System The circulatory system in lizards and snakes is a bit different from those in mammals. Fluids injected caudally into the lower, or back, half of the body, as from the abdomen down the tail circulate first through the kidneys then up to the upper part of the body. The mandible , or lower jaw, consists of a single, tooth-bearing bone in mammals the dentary , whereas the lower jaw of modern and prehistoric reptiles consists of a conglomeration of smaller bones including the dentary, articular , and others.
As they evolved in synapsids, these jaw bones were reduced in size and either lost or, in the case of the articular, gradually moved into the ear, forming one of the middle ear bones: The malleus is derived from the articular a lower jaw bone , while the incus is derived from the quadrate a cranial bone. Mammalian jaw structures are also set apart by the dentary-squamosal jaw joint. In this form of jaw joint, the dentary forms a connection with a depression in the squamosal known as the glenoid cavity.
In contrast, all other jawed vertebrates, including reptiles and nonmammalian synapsids, possess a jaw joint in which one of the smaller bones of the lower jaw, the articular, makes a connection with a bone of the cranium called the quadrate bone to form the articular-quadrate jaw joint. In forms transitional to mammals, the jaw joint is composed of a large, lower jaw bone similar to the dentary found in mammals that does not connect to the squamosal, but connects to the quadrate with a receding articular bone.
Over time, as synapsids became more mammalian and less 'reptilian', they began to develop a secondary palate , separating the mouth and nasal cavity. In early synapsids, a secondary palate began to form on the sides of the maxilla , still leaving the mouth and nostril connected.
Eventually, the two sides of the palate began to curve together, forming a U-shape instead of a C-shape.
The palate also began to extend back toward the throat, securing the entire mouth and creating a full palatine bone. The maxilla is also closed completely. In fossils of one of the first eutheriodonts , the beginnings of a palate are clearly visible.
The later Thrinaxodon has a full and completely closed palate, forming a clear progression. In addition to the glandular skin covered in fur found in most modern mammals, modern and extinct synapsids possess a variety of modified skin coverings, including osteoderms bony armor embedded in the skin , scutes protective structures of the dermis often with a horny covering , hair or fur, and scale-like structures often formed from modified hair, as in pangolins and some rodents.
While the skin of reptiles is rather thin, that of mammals has a thick dermal layer. The ancestral skin type of synapsids has been subject to discussion.
Among the early synapsids, only two species of small varanopids have been found to possess scutes;  fossilized rows of osteoderms indicate horny armour on the neck and back, and skin impressions indicate some possessed rectangular scutes on their undersides and tails.
These differed in structure from the scales of lizards and snakes , which are an epidermal feature like mammalian hair or avian feathers. It is currently unknown exactly when mammalian characteristics such as body hair and mammary glands first appeared, as the fossils only rarely provide direct evidence for soft tissues.
An exceptionally well-preserved skull of Estemmenosuchus , a therapsid from the Upper Permian, preserves smooth skin with what appear to be glandular depressions,  an animal noted as being semi- aquatic.
More primitive members of the Cynodontia are also hypothesized to have had fur or a fur-like covering based on their inferred warm-blooded metabolism. The apparent absence of these glands in non-mammaliaformes may suggest that fur did not originate until that point in synapsid evolution. However, recent [ when? These are the oldest impressions of hair on synapsids. Early synapsids, as far back as their known evolutionary debut in the Late Carboniferous period,  may have laid parchment-shelled leathery eggs  which lacked a calcified layer, as most modern reptiles and monotremes do.
This may also explain why there is no fossil evidence for synapsid eggs to date. According to Oftedal, early synapsids may have buried the eggs into moisture laden soil, hydrating them with contact with the moist skin, or may have carried them in a moist pouch, similar to that of monotremes echidnas carry their eggs and offspring via a temporary pouch   , though this would limit the mobility of the parent.
The latter may have been the primitive form of egg care in synapsids rather than simply burying the eggs, and the constraint on the parent's mobility would have been solved by having the eggs "parked" in nests during foraging or other activities and periodically be hydrated, allowing higher clutch sizes than could fit inside a pouch or pouches at once, and large eggs, which would be cumbersome to carry in a pouch, would be easier to care for.
The basis of Oftedal's speculation is the fact that many species of anurans can carry eggs or tadpoles attached to the skin, or embedded within cutaneous "pouches" and how most salamanders curl around their eggs to keep them moist, both groups also having glandular skin. The glands involved in this mechanism would later evolve into true mammary glands with multiple modes of secretion in association with hair follicles.
Comparative analyses of the evolutionary origin of milk constituents support a scenario in which the secretions from these glands evolved into a complex, nutrient-rich milk long before true mammals arose with some of the constituents possibly predating the split between the synapsid and sauropsid lines. Cynodonts were almost certainly able to produce this, which allowed a progressive decline of yolk mass and thus egg size, resulting in increasingly altricial hatchlings as milk became the primary source of nutrition, which is all evidenced by the small body size, the presence of epipubic bones , and limited tooth replacement in advanced cynodonts, as well as in mammaliaforms.
Aerial locomotion first began in non-mammalian haramiyidan cynodonts , with Arboroharamiya , Xianshou , Maiopatagium and Vilevolodon both bearing equisitely preserved, fur-covered wing membranes that stretch across the limbs and tail. Their fingers are elongated, similar to those of bats and colugos and likely sharing similar roles both as wing supports and to hang on tree branches.
Within true mammals, aerial locomotion first occurs in volaticotherian eutriconodonts. Volaticotherium preserves an exquisitely preserved furry patagium with delicate wrinkles and that is very extensive, "sandwiching" the poorly preserved hands and feet and extending to the base of the tail. Therian mammals would only achieve powered flight and gliding long after these early aeronauts became extinct, with the earliest known gliding metatherians and bats evolving in the Paleocene.
Recently it has been found that endothermy was present as far back as the late carboniferous, with Ophiacodon. The presence of fibrolamellar, a specialised type of bone that can grow quickly while maintaining a stable structure, shows that Ophiacodon would have used its high internal body temperature to fuel a fast growth comparable to modern endotherms. Archaeothyris and Clepsydrops , the earliest known synapsids,  lived in the Pennsylvanian subperiod Mya of the Carboniferous period and belonged to the series of primitive synapsids which are conventionally grouped as pelycosaurs.
They were sprawling, bulky, possibly cold-blooded, and had small brains. Some, such as Dimetrodon , had large sails that might have helped raise their body temperature. A few relict groups lasted into the later Permian but, by the middle of the Late Permian, all of the pelycosaurs had either died off or evolved into their successors, the therapsids.
The therapsids, a more advanced group of synapsids, appeared during the Middle Permian and included the largest terrestrial animals in the Middle and Late Permian.
They included herbivores and carnivores, ranging from small animals the size of a rat e. Robertia , to large, bulky herbivores a ton or more in weight e. After flourishing for many millions of years, these successful animals were all but wiped out by the Permian-Triassic mass extinction about mya, the largest known extinction in Earth's history , possibly related to the Siberian Traps volcanic event.
Only a few therapsids went on to be successful in the new early Triassic landscape; they include Lystrosaurus and Cynognathus , the latter of which appeared later in the early Triassic. Now, however, they were accompanied by the early archosaurs soon to give rise to the dinosaurs.
Some of these, such as Euparkeria , were small and lightly built, while others, such as Erythrosuchus , were as big as or bigger than the largest therapsids. After the Permian extinction, the synapsids did not count more than three surviving clades. The first comprised the therocephalians, which only lasted the first 20 million years of the Triassic period. The second were specialised, beaked herbivores known as dicynodonts such as the Kannemeyeriidae , which contained some members that reached large size up to a tonne or more.
And finally there were the increasingly mammal-like carnivorous, herbivorous, and insectivorous cynodonts, including the eucynodonts from the Olenekian age, an early representative of which was Cynognathus.