Skeletal System Anatomy
Industrial fluoride pollution in the metallurgical industry in China. The concentrations of vitamin D precursors produced in the skin reach an equilibrium , and any further vitamin D produced is degraded. Genotoxicity o f Fluoride. A systematic review and meta-analysis". Long-term fluoride therapy of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Schnitzler CM, et al. Health Canada published recommended dietary allowances RDA and tolerable upper intake levels for vitamin D in  based on the Institute of Medicine report.
Whether it is made in the skin or ingested, Vitamin D is hydroxylated in the liver at position 25 upper right of the molecule to form hydroxycholecalciferol calcifediol or 25 OH D. The conversion of calcifediol to calcitriol is catalyzed by the enzyme hydroxyvitamin D 3 1-alpha-hydroxylase , which is the product of the CYP27B1 human gene. The activity of CYP27B1 is increased by parathyroid hormone , and also by low calcium or phosphate. Following the final converting step in the kidney, calcitriol is released into the circulation.
By binding to vitamin D-binding protein, calcitriol is transported throughout the body, including to the classical target organs of intestine, kidney and bone. In addition to the kidneys, calcitriol is also synthesized by certain other cells including monocyte - macrophages in the immune system.
When synthesized by monocyte-macrophages, calcitriol acts locally as a cytokine , modulating body defenses against microbial invaders by stimulating the innate immune system. The activity of calcifediol and calcitriol can be reduced by hydroxylation at position 24 by vitamin D3 hydroxylase , forming secalciferol and calcitetrol respecively. American researchers Elmer McCollum and Marguerite Davis in  discovered a substance in cod liver oil which later was called "vitamin A". British doctor Edward Mellanby noticed dogs that were fed cod liver oil did not develop rickets and concluded vitamin A, or a closely associated factor, could prevent the disease.
In , Elmer McCollum tested modified cod liver oil in which the vitamin A had been destroyed. He called it vitamin D because it was the fourth vitamin to be named. In ,  it was established that when 7-dehydrocholesterol is irradiated with light, a form of a fat-soluble vitamin is produced now known as D 3.
Alfred Fabian Hess stated: A meeting took place with J. Bernal , and Dorothy Crowfoot to discuss possible structures, which contributed to bringing a team together. X-ray crystallography demonstrated the sterol molecules were flat, not as proposed by the German team led by Windaus. In , Otto Rosenheim and Harold King published a paper putting forward structures for sterols and bile acids which found immediate acceptance.
In the s, Windaus clarified further the chemical structure of vitamin D. In , American biochemist Harry Steenbock at the University of Wisconsin demonstrated that irradiation by ultraviolet light increased the vitamin D content of foods and other organic materials. A vitamin D deficiency is a known cause of rickets. His irradiation technique was used for foodstuffs, most memorably for milk.
By the expiration of his patent in , rickets had been all but eliminated in the US. In , after studying nuclear fragments of intestinal cells, a specific binding protein for Vitamin D called the Vitamin D Receptor was identified by Mark Haussler and Tony Norman.
In the liver, vitamin D was found to be converted to calcifediol. Calcifediol is then converted by the kidneys to calcitriol, the biologically active form of vitamin D.
The vitamin D metabolites, calcifediol and calcitriol, were identified by competing teams led by Michael F. There is considerable research activity looking at effects of vitamin D and its metabolites in animal models, cell systems, gene expression studies, epidemiology and clinical therapeutics. These different types of studies can produce conflicting evidence as to the benefits of interventions with vitamin D. They suggest, for some people, reducing the risk of preventable disease requires a higher level of vitamin D than that recommended by the IOM.
Until such trials are conducted, the implications of the available evidence for public health and patient care will be debated". Some preliminary studies link low vitamin D levels with disease later in life.
Vitamin D deficiency is widespread in the European population. Apart from VDR activation, various alternative mechanisms of action are under study, such as inhibition of signal transduction by hedgehog , a hormone involved in morphogenesis. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Vitamin D disambiguation. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. The Journal of Nutrition. Retrieved 6 June American Association for Clinical Chemistry.
Retrieved June 23, A metabolite of vitamin D active in intestine". Vitamin D and cardiometabolic outcomes". Annals of Internal Medicine. University of California, Riverside. Retrieved January 24, Molecular vitamin D mediated mechanisms". Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. Retrieved July 9, The New England Journal of Medicine.
The British Journal of Nutrition. Nutrition Through the Life Cycle. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 4: Calcified Tissue International Review. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics. The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics. Archived from the original on June 8, Retrieved August 24, The Nutrition Desk Reference.
Melanie 1 February How Milk Became America's Drink. A systematic review and meta-analysis". Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases Review. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Preventive Services Task Force". A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis". American Journal of Epidemiology Review. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. Journal of Clinical Virology.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine. International Journal of Epidemiology. The American Journal of the Medical Sciences. Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences. The evidence for vitamin D as a treatment for MS is inconclusive.
The available evidence substantiates neither clinically significant benefit nor harm from vitamin D in the treatment of patients with MS. Multiple Sclerosis Journal Systematic Review. Several preliminary studies have reported results which have shown some promise, but none has yet provided significant evidence of a clinically meaningful improvement. Role, Current Uses and Future Perspectives". International Journal of Molecular Sciences. Effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on improving glucose homeostasis and preventing diabetes: World Journal of Diabetes Review.
Updated meta-analysis on maternal outcomes". A Food Labeling Guide Health Claims Food Labeling". Health Claim Regarding Calcium and Osteoporosis". Australian Ministry of Health. Archived from the original on February 27, Updated Dietary Reference Intakes". Nutrition and Healthy Eating. Retrieved April 28, National Health and Medical Research Council. Retrieved 28 April Revision of the Nutrition and Supplement Facts Labels.
FR page " PDF. Retrieved July 21, Retrieved 21 July Vitamin D and postmenopausal health". Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. Retrieved 16 April Retrieved 12 June An overview of vitamin D status and intake in Europe". Department of Health and Human Services July 15, Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved February 22, Are they one and the same? Nutrition Bulletin - Wiley Online Library. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition.
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology Review. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes. The preparative value of a photo-sensitiser". Journal of the Chemical Society, Chemical Communications Claiborne Ray May 17, The New York Times.
Archived from the original on February 21, Retrieved March 8, Archived from the original on May 30, Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity. Journal of General Internal Medicine. Use of calcitriol 1,dihydroxyvitamin D3 for treatment of psoriasis". Retrieved 19 December Retrieved 30 March The Vitamin D Solution: Bone Loss and Osteoporosis: Archived PDF from the original on 29 January The high 25 OH D concentrations, and relatively high vitamin D requirements of apes and monkeys are understandable in light of their biology—their body surface area relative to mass is generally greater than for humans, and they are inveterate groomers, consuming by mouth the vitamin D generated from the oils secreted by skin into fur.
Although much of the vitamin D produced within human skin is absorbed directly, birds and furbearing animals acquire most of their vitamin D orally, as they groom themselves Bicknell and Prescott, ; Carpenter and Zhao, Vitamin D is generated from the oily secretions of skin into fur.
Although Fraser has argued that dermal absorption of vitamin D may be more natural, what we know from animals indicates that oral consumption is equally physiological. Since vitamin D can be extracted from UV-exposed human sweat and skin secretions Bicknell and Prescott, , it is also reasonable to think that early humans obtained some of their vitamin D by mouth as well, by licking the skin.
Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology. Vitamin D Binding Protein". Nomenclature of vitamin D. European Journal of Biochemistry. A metabolite of vitamin D3 effective on intestine". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Bigay J, et al. Fluoride complexes of aluminium or beryllium act on G-proteins as reversibly bound analogues of the gamma phosphate of GTP.
European Molecular Biology Organization Journal 6: Aluminofluoride and beryllofluoride complexes: Trends in Biochemical Sciences Annual Review of Biochemistry The biochemistry and physiology of metallic fluoride: Critical Reviews of Oral Biology and Medicine 14 2: Loweth AC, et al. Heterotrimeric G-proteins are implicated in the regulation of apoptosis in pancreatic beta-cells.
Experimental Cell Research 1: Matsuo S, et al. Mechanism of toxic action of fluoride in dental fluorosis: Archives of Toxicology 72 Heterotrimeric G proteins as fluoride targets in bone review. International Journal of Molecular Medicine 3 2: Azar HA, et al.
Skeletal fluorosis due to chronic fluoride intoxication. Annals of Internal Medicine Occurrence of endemic fluorosis in human population of North Gujarat, India: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology Bo Z, et al. Distribution and risk assessment of fluoride in drinking water in the west plain region of Jilin province, China.
Environmental Geochemistry and Health 25 4: Boyle DR, Chagnon M. An incidence of skeletal fluorosis associated with groundwaters of the maritime carboniferous basin, Gaspe region, Quebec, Canada. Environmental Geochemistry and Health Bruns BR, Tytle T. Cao J, et al. Brick tea fluoride as a main source of adult fluorosis.
Food and Chemical Toxicology 41 4: Choubisa SL, et al. Endemic fluorosis in Rajasthan. Indian Journal of Environmental Health The spectrum of radiographic bone changes in children with fluorosis. Fluoride studies in a patient with arthritis. Dhuna AK, et al. An unusual cause of progressive radiculomyelopathy. Histopathological assessment of endemic skeletal fluorosis. Calcified Tissue Research A report of fluorosis in the United States secondary to drinking well water.
Journal of the American Medical Association Fisher JR, et al. Skeletal fluorosis from eating soil. Fisher RL, et al. Endemic fluorosis with spinal cord compression.
A case report and review. Archives of Internal Medicine Fluoride osteosclerosis simulating carcinoma of the prostate with widespread bony metastasis: Journal of Urology Goldman SM, et al. Radiculomyelopathy in a southwestern indian due to skeletal fluorosis. Gupta RK, et al. Compressive myelopathy in fluorosis. Neurological complications of endemic skeletal fluorosis, with special emphasis on radiculo-myelopathy.
Questions about health risks and benefits remain after more than 40 years. Chemical and Engineering News August 1. Johnson W, et al. Fluoridation and bone disease in renal patients. Continuing Evaluation of the Use of Fluorides. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado. Jolly SS, et al. Endemic fluorosis in Punjab: Hydric fluorosis in Punjab. An epidemiological, clinical and biochemical study of endemic, dental and skeletal fluorosis in Punjab.
Renal failure and fluorosis. Journal of the American Medical Association 7: Kilborn LG, et al. Fluorosis with report of an advanced case.
Canadian Medical Association Journal Skeletal fluorosis in humans: Progress in Food and Nutrition Sciences 10 Krishnamachari KA, Krishnaswamy K. Genu valgum and osteoporosis in an area of endemic fluorosis.
British Journal of Radiology Lantz O, et al. Fluoride-induced chronic renal failure. American Journal of Kidney Disorders Latham MC, Grech P. The effects of excessive fluoride intake. American Journal of Public Health A roentgenologic study of a human population exposed to high-fluoride domestic water: Osteoporosis--an early radiographic sign of endemic fluorosis. Skeletal Radiology 15 5: Fluoride osteosclerosis from drinking water. Paleopathology of skeletal fluorosis.
American Journal of Physical Anthropology 4: Endemic fluorosis in Kweichow, China. Misra UK, et al. Endemic fluorosis presenting as cervical cord compression.
Archives of Environmental Health Mithal A, et al. Radiological spectrum of endemic fluorosis: Skeletal Radiology 22 4: Skeletal fluorosis among indians of the American Southwest. Ossification of the ligamentum flavum as a result of fluorosis causing myelopathy: Pandit CG, et al. Endemic fluorosis in South India. Indian Journal of Medical Research Pinet A, Pinet F. Endemic fluorosis in the Sahara. Sauerbrunn BJ, et al. Chronic fluoride intoxication with fluorotic radiculomyelopathy.
Savas S, et al. Endemic fluorosis in Turkish patients: Rheumatology International 21 1: Shortt HE, et al. Endemic fluorosis in the Madras presidency. Neurological complications of skeletal fluorosis with special reference to lesions in the cervical region.
Fluorosis in Nalgonda district, Hyderabad-Deccan. British Medical Journal ii Dec Singh A, Jolly SS. Chronic toxic effects on the skeletal system. Fluorides and Human Health. Singh A, et al. Epidemiological, clinical and biochemical study of chronic fluoride intoxication in Punjab. Skeletal fluorosis and its neurological complications. Periostitis deformans due to wine fluorosis. Stevenson CA, Watson R. Susheela AK, et al.
Prevalence of endemic fluorosis with gastro-intestinal manifestations in people living in some North-Indian villages. Endemic chronic fluoride toxicity and dietary calcium deficiency interaction syndromes of metabolic bone disease and deformities in India: Indian Journal of Pediatrics Teotia SPS, et al.
Symposium on the non-skeletal phase of chronic fluorosis: Further observations on endemic fluoride-induced osteopathies in children. Xu RQ, et al. Relations between environment and endemic fluorosis in Hohot region, Inner Mongolia.
Incipient fluorine intoxication from drinking water. Acta Medica Scandinavica Wang W, et al. Ossification of the transverse atlantal ligament associated with fluorosis: Endemic fluorosis of the skeleton: American Journal of Roentgenology 1: Endemic fluorosis with neurological complications in a Hampshire man.
Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry Whyte MP, et al. Skeletal fluorosis and instant tea. American Journal of Medicine Yang L, et al. Developing environmental health indicators as policy tools for endemic fluorosis management in the People's Republic of China. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 25 3: Occupational Fluorosis back to top.
Boillat MA, et al. Radiological criteria of industrial fluorosis. Czerwinski E, et al. Bone and joint pathology in fluoride-exposed workers. Archives of Environmental Health 43 5: Czerwinski E, Lankosz W. Skeletal changes in industrial and endemic fluorosis. Fluoride-induced changes in 60 retired aluminum workers.
Derryberry OM, et al. Fluoride exposure and worker health. Archives of Environmental Health 6: Franke J, et al. Occupational fluorosis through 50 years: American Journal of Industrial Medicine 3 2: Journal of Occupational Medicine Kaltreider NL, et al. Health survey of aluminum workers with special reference to fluoride exposure. Journal of Occupational Medicine 14 7: Massive fluorosis of bones and ligaments. Runge H, Franke J. Radiological modifications of the skeletal system among aluminum smelter workers: A 15 year retrospective study.
Tartatovskaya LY, et al. Clinico-hygiene assessment of the combined effect on the body of vibration and fluorine. Noise and Vibration Bulletin Zhiliang Y, et al. Industrial fluoride pollution in the metallurgical industry in China. Livestock Fluorosis back to top. Fluorosis in dairy cattle. The Veterinary Record Effects on livestock of air contamination caused by fluoride fumes. Krook L, Maylin GA. Chronic fluoride poisoning in Cornwall Island cattle. Cornell Veterinarian 69 Suppl 8: The fluorosis problem in livestock production.
Committee on Animal Nutrition, Agricultural Board. A critical study of the literature on fluoride toxicology with respect to cattle damage.
American Journal of Veterinary Research Clinical aspects of fluorosis in horses. Journal of the American Veterinary Association Shupe JL, et al.
The effect of fluorine on dairy cattle II. Clinical and pathologic effects. Effects of fluoride on livestock. Animal Studies back to top. Effects of fluoride on mechanical properties of femoral bone in growing rats. Burnell TW, et al.
Effect of dietary fluorine on growth, blood and bone characteristics of growing-finishing pigs. Journal of Animal Science Effects of fluoride treatment on bone strength. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 5 Suppl 1: Gedalia I, et al. Effects of estrogen on bone composition in rats at low and high fluoride intake. Giavaresi G, et al. The mechanical properties of fluoride-treated bone in the ovariectomized rat.
Calcified Tissue International Lafage MH, et al. Comparison of alendronate and sodium fluoride effects on cancellous and cortical bone in minipigs. Journal of Clinical Investigation Mosekilde L, et al. Compressive strength, ash weight, and volume of vertebral trabecular bone in experimental fluorosis in pigs. Riggins RS, et al. The effect of fluoride supplementation on the strength of osteopenic bone.
In vitro sodium fluoride exposure decreases torsional and bending strength and increases ductility of mouse femora. Journal of Biomechanics 33 2: Sogaard CH, et al. Effects of fluoride on rat vertebral body biomechanical competence and bone mass.
Turner CH, et al. Combined effects of diets with reduced calcium and phosphate and increased fluoride intake on vertebral bone strength and histology in rats. Calcified Tissue International 69 1: Fluoride treatment increased serum IGF-1, bone turnover, and bone mass, but not bone strength, in rabbits.
Calcified Tissue International 61 1: High fluoride intakes cause osteomalacia and diminished bone strength in rats with renal deficiency. Reductions in bone strength after fluoride treatment are not reflected in tissue-level acoustic measurements.
Fluoride reduces bone strength in older rats. Journal of Dental Research 74 8: On fluoride and bone strength letter. The effects of fluoridated water on bone strength. Journal of Orthopaedic Research 10 4: Walsh WR, Guzelsu N. The role of ions and mineral-organic interfacial bonding on the compressive properties of cortical bone. Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering 3: Wolinsky I, et al. Effects of fluoride on metabolism and mechanical properties of rat bone. American Journal of Physiology 1: Human Clinical Trials back to top.
Bayley TA, et al. Dambacher MA, et al. Long-term fluoride therapy of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Gerster JC, et al. Bilateral fractures of femoral neck in patients with moderate renal failure receiving fluoride for spinal osteoporosis.
Gutteridge DH, et al. Osteoporosis International 13 2: Spontaneous hip fractures in fluoride-treated patients: Haguenauer D, et al. Fluoride for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporotic fractures: Osteoporosis International 11 9: Increased incidence of hip fracture in osteoporotic women treated with sodium fluoride.
Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 4: Inkovaara J, et al. Prophylactic fluoride treatment and aged bones. British Medical Journal 3 Kleerekoper M, et al. A randomized trial of sodium fluoride as a treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Osteoporosis International 1 3: Meunier PJ, et al. Fluoride salts are no better at preventing new vertebral fractures than calcium-vitamin D in postmenopausal osteoporosis: O'Duffy JD, et al.
Mechanism of acute lower extremity pain syndrome in fluoride-treated osteoporotic patients. Orcel P, et al. Stress fractures of the lower limbs in osteoporotic patients treated with fluoride. Pak CY, et al. Comparison of nonrandomized trials with slow-release sodium fluoride with a randomized placebo-controlled trial in postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 11 2: Treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis with slow-release sodium fluoride. Final report of a randomized controlle d trial. Riggs BL, et al. New England Journal of Medicine Rubin CD, et al. Sustained-release sodium fluoride in the treatment of the elderly with established osteoporosis. Schnitzler CM, et al. Bone fragility of the peripheral skeleton during fluoride therapy for osteoporosis. Schnitzler CM, Solomon L. Trabecular stress fractures during fluoride therapy for osteoporosis.
Skeletal Radioliology 14 4: Epidemiological Studies back to top. Water fluoride concentration and fracture of the proximal femur. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health Water fluoridation and hip fracture. A reanalysis of data presented in paper. Danielson C, et al. Hip fractures and fluoridation in Utah's elderly population. Journal of the American Medical Association 6: Hegmann KT, et al. The effects of fluoridation on degenerative joint disease DJD and hip Fractures.
Abstract 71 of the 33rd annual meeting of the Society for Epidemiological Research. American Journal of Epidemiology S Jacobsen SJ, et al. The association between water fluoridation and hip fracture among white women and men aged 65 years and older; a national ecologic study.
Annals of Epidemiology 2: Regional variation in the incidence of hip fracture: US white women aged 65 years and olders. Journal of the American Medical Association 4: Fluorine concentration in drinking water and fractures in the elderly. Risk factors for fractures in the elderly. An elaboration of the study referred to in the JAMA letter. Kurttio PN, et al.
Exposure to natural fluoride in well water and hip fracture: A cohort analysis in Finland. American Journal of Epidemiology 8: Hip fractures in relation to water fluoridation: Suarez-Almazor M, et al.
The fluoridation of drinking water and hip fracture hospitalization rates in two Canadian communities. The authors of this study conclude there is no association between fluoridation and hip fracture.
However, their own data reveals a significant increase in hip fracture for men living in the fluoridated area. Effect of long-term exposure to fluoride in drinking water on risks of bone fractures. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 16 5: Sowers MR, et al. The relationship of bone mass and fracture history to fluoride and calcium intake: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition Sowers M, et al.
A prospective study of bone mineral content and fracture in communities with differential fluoride exposure. American Journal of Epidemiology Journal of Nutrition See notes and quotes below. Arnala I, et al. Hip fracture incidence not affected by fluoridation. Osteofluorosis studied in Finland. Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica Effects of fluoridated drinking water on bone mass and fractures: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 10 7: Feskanich D, et al.
Use of toenail fluoride levels as an indicator for the risk of hip and forearm fractures in women. While this study didn't find an association between water fluoride and hip fracture, it did find an association - albeit non-significant 1. Hillier S, et al. Fluoride in drinking water and risk of hip fracture in the UK: Hip fracture incidence before and after the fluoridation of the public water supply, Rochester, Minnesota.
Karagas MR, et al. Patterns of fracture among the United States elderly: Geographic and fluoride effects. Annals of Epidemiology 6 3: See abstract See critique of study. Lehmann R, et al. Bone mineral density and hip fracture incidence. Madans J, et al. The relationship between hip fracture and water fluoridation: Phipps KR, et al. Community water fluoridation, bone mineral density and fractures: British Medical Journal This study reported a decreased incidence of hip fracture in fluoridated areas.
However, as with Feskanich and Karagas , the study also found an association between fluoridation and other types of fracture - in this case, wrist fracture. Bernstein DS, et al. Prevalence of osteoporosis in high- and low-fluoride areas in North Dakota. Belanger LF, et al. Rachitomimetic effects of fluoride feeding on the skeletal tissues of growing pigs. American Journal of Pathology Burkhart JM, Jowsey J.
Effect of variations in calcium intake on the skeleton of fluoride-fed kittens. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine Chachra D, et al. The effect of fluoride treatment on bone mineral in rabbits. Comar CL, et al. Effects of fluorine on calcium metabolism and bone growth in pigs.
American Journal of Anatomy Kragstrup J, et al. Experimental osteo-fluorosis in the domestic pig: Journal of Dental Research Fratzl P, et al. Effects of sodium fluoride and alendronate on the bone mineral in minipigs: Golub L, et al. The effect of sodium fluoride on the rates of synthesis and degradation of bone collagen in tissue culture. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine Guggenheim K, et al.
The effect of fluoride on bone of rats fed diets deficient in calcium or phosphorus. Henrikson PA, et al. Fluoride and nutritional osteoporosis. Ittel TH, et al. Effect of fluoride on aluminum-induced bone disease in rats with renal failure. Jiang Y, et al. Effects of low-dose long-term sodium fluoride preventive treatment on rat bone mass and biomechanical properties. Kierdorf U, et al. Fluoride content and mineralization of red deer Cervus elaphus antlers and pedicles from fluoride polluted and uncontaminated regions.
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology Ream JL, et al. Fluoride ingestion during multiple pregnancies and lactations: Virchows Archiv B The effects of short-term fluoride ingestion on bone formation and resorption in the rat femur. Cell and Tissue Research Robin JC, et al. Studies on osteoporosis III. Effect of estrogens and fluoride.
Journal of Medicine X-ray absorption and x-ray fluorescence micro-analysis of mineralized tissue of rats which have ingested fluoridated water. Acta Pathologica et Microbiologica Scandinavica Effect on sodium fluoride on collagen cross-link precursors.
Snow GR, Anderson C. Short-term chronic fluoride administration and trabecular bone remodeling in beagles: Calcified Tissue International 38 4: Susheela AK, Jha M. Cellular and histological characteristics of osteoid formed in experimental fluoride poisoning. Turner RT, et al. The effects of fluoride on bone and implant histomorphometry in growing rats.
Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 4 4: Effect of fluoride on collagen synthesis in the rat. Research and Experimental Medicine 1: Fluoride ion effect on interfacial bonding and mechanical properties of bone. Journal of Biomechanics Krook L, Minor RR. Fluoride and alkaline phosphatase. Balena R, et al. Effects of different regimens of sodium fluoride treatment for osteoporosis on the structure, remodeling and mineralization of bone.
Osteoporosis International 8 5: The effects of fluoride therapy on metabolic bone disease. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research Boivin G, et al.
Relationship between bone fluoride content and histological evidence of calcification defects in osteoporotic women treated long term with sodium fluoride. Osteoporosis International 3 4: Cass RM, et al. New bone formation in osteoporosis following treatment with sodium fluoride. Compston JE, et al. Osteomalacia developing during treatment of osteoporosis with sodium fluoride and vitamin D.
Abnormal bone mineralization after fluoride treatment in osteoporosis: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 9 Is fluoride treatment justified today? Calcified Tissue International 49 Suppl: Jowsey J, et al. Effect of combined therapy with sodium fluoride, vitamin D and calcium in osteoporosis. American Journal of Medicine 53 1: Some results of the effect of fluoride on bone tissue in osteoporosis.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology Effects of sodium fluoride, vitamin D, and calcium on cortical bone remodeling in osteoporotic patients. Fluoride and Bone - Quantity Versus Quality.
Lundy MW, et al. Histomorphometric analysis of iliac crest bone biopsies in placebo-treated versus fluoride-treated subjects. Patel S, et al. Fluoride pharmacokinetics and changes in lumbar spine and hip bone mineral density. Treatment of osteoporosis with sodium fluoride: Bone and Mineral Research 2: Iliac bone biopsies at the time of periarticular stress fractures during fluoride therapy: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 5 2: Marked decrease in trabecular bone quality after five years of sodium fluoride therapy--assessed by biomechanical testing of iliac crest bone biopsies in osteoporotic patients.
The microscopic morphology of fluoride-induced bone. Zerwekh JE, et al. Effect of slow-release sodium fluoride on cancellous bone histology and connectivity in osteoporosis.
Fluoride Concentrations in Human Bone back to top. Alhava EM, et al. Bone fluoride in proximal femur fractures. Effects of fluoride on bone in Finland. Histomorphometry of cadaver bone from low and high fluoride areas. Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica 56 2: Fluoride content in human iliac bone: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 3 5: Call RA, et al. Histological and chemical studies in man on effects of fluoride. Public Health Reports Charen J, et al. Bone fluoride concentrations associated with fluoridated drinking water.
Calcified Tissue International 27 2: Cohen-Solal ME, et al. Fluoride and strontium accumulation in bone does not correlate with osteoid tissue in dialysis patients. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation Eble DM, et al. Fluoride concentrations in human and rat bone.
Journal of Public Health Dentistry Glock GE, et al. The retention and elimination of fluoride in bones. Hefti A, Marthaler TM. Bone fluoride concentrations after 16 years of drinking water fluoridation. Caries Research 15 1: Jackson D, Weidman SM. Fluorine in human bone related to age and the water supply of different regions.
Journal of Pathological Bacteriology Fluoride levels in human rib bone: Canadian Journal of Public Health 65 5: Ng AHM, et al. Association between fluoride, magnesium, aluminum and bone quality in renal osteodystrophy.
Parkins FM, et al. Relationships of human plasma fluoride and bone fluoride to age. Richards A, et al. Normal age-related changes in fluoride content of vertebral trabecular bone - Relation to bone quality. Smith FA, et al. Age increase and fluoride content in human bone. Stein ID, Granik G. Relation of strength, porosity, and mineralization to fluoride content. Wix P, Mohamedally SM. The significance of age-dependent fluoride accumulation in bone in relation to daily intake of fluoride.
Zipkin L, et al. Fluoride deposition in human bones after prolonged ingestion of fluoride in drinking water. US Public Health Reports F actors which Increase Accumulation of Fluoride in Bone: Annals of Internal Medicine 63 6: Kono K, et al.
Urinary fluoride excretion in fluoride exposed workers with diminished renal function. Industrial Health 22 1: Noel C, et al. Spak CJ, et al. Renal clearance of fluoride in children and adolescents. Welsch M, et al. Factors which Increase Accumulation of Fluoride in Bone: Nutritional Deficiencies back to top. The effects of fluoride and low calcium on the physical properties of the rat femur.
The Anatomical Record Li G, Ren L. Likimani S, et al. The effects of protein deficiency and fluoride on bone mineral content of rat tibia. Calcified Tissue International 50 2: Marier JR, et al. Accumulation of skeletal fluoride and its implications. The effects of sodium fluoride on bone breaking strength. Indian Journal of Pediatrics 65 3: Bucher JR, et al. Results and conclusions of the National Toxicology Program's rodent carcinogenicity studies with sodium fluoride.
International Journal of Cancer 48 5: Technical report Series No. See executive summary See study See news articles. For commentary on NTP Study, see: A Statement of Concern.