What Is a Reptile?
The air space 7 provides the embryo with oxygen while it is hatching. Brightsmith and Muñoz-Najar did not find evidence that parrots choose soils with greater CEC or clay content, the characteristics that correlate with the capacity to adsorb toxins. Films of Science Fiction and Fantasy. For snakes scared of live prey, lay killed prey in their enclosure, on their hide box, or even on their coils. Thank you for your continued loyalty to The Worm Lady. Glucose transport in birds -- In contrast with regulation of intestinal glucose transport in mammals, amphibians and fish, intestinal glucose transport does not change with dietary carbohydrate in most birds.
Reptiles - Amphibians Articles
Woodland Terrarium The woodland terrarium can house various frogs including red-eyed tree frogs, barking tree frogs, green tree frogs and true frogs; also various salamanders, day geckos, anoles, skinks, and snakes. The woodland terrarium is set up just like the semi-aquatic terrarium only without the large water area. Simply provide a water bowl. This terrarium is all substrate with plants, driftwood, moss and rocks.
Depending on the type of animal you will house here, substrates can be: The pets you wish to keep in it will also determine if it should be planted, and how heavily it should be planted; whether you will have more branches for tree climbers or more rocks for ground dwellers.
Plants such as philodendrons, syngoniums, fittonias, and other greenhouse varieties can work well in these terrariums. Various "air plants" such as tillandsia work great, too. They are real low maintenance, they can be attached to driftwood and will do well just being misted a couple of times a week. You may need to provide a heat source, depending on the inhabitant, but make sure there is a thermal gradient to the enclosure, generally one end that is warmer while cooler on the other end.
This allows your reptile to thermoregulate as it needs to. Full-spectrum lighting is also important for some of the woodland types.
Desert Terrarium Some pets that will do very well in the desert terrarium are: A desert terrarium is just what it's name implies, an arid or semi-arid environment. Good substrates for this terrarium includes reptile bark, terrarium carpet or sand.
Plants need be able to handle low humidity and be drought tolerant, such as cactus and succulents. You will need to provide a heat source but make sure there is a thermal gradient to the enclosure, generally one end that is warmer while cooler on the other end. Full-spectrum lighting is also important for most of the desert types. Terrarium Supplies The housing requirements for most cages and terrariums consist of four basic elements; heating, lighting, floor covering, decor and cleaning.
The reptile supplies for these elements sometimes overlap. An example is lighting, where a full-spectrum incandescent bulb will provide heat for all reptiles.
It will also provide adequate lighting for some reptiles though not all. It is not an adequate full-spectrum lighting for lizards such as the iguana or the sun lizard. Heating Heating your terrarium can be accomplished by using one or more methods or devices in order to provide the optimum environment for the herptile you are housing.
For many species it is often best to provide heating in a manner that offers a thermal gradient to the enclosure, that is to say, warmer on one end and cooler on the other. Heating can be provided in several ways: Heating devices kept outside the enclosure will prevent accidental burns.
Hot rocks should be avoided or used very carefully and only as a secondary or supplementary heat source see more about them below Thermometer It is important to have a wide-range thermometer mounted on your terrarium so that you can monitor the temperature and make sure it is appropriate for the herps you will be housing.
Using two thermometers, one on each end, will give a better indication of the thermal gradient of the enclosure warm to cool. Basking lamps Basking lamps can be mounted at the top, usually outside the wire top of the cage. You don't want your pet to be able to touch the lamp as it can get burnt. The lamp provides a heat source through a full-spectrum bulb during the daytime and a red frosted bulb or a "blacklight" bulb for night. The light in these nighttime bulbs cannot be seen by your pet though you can still see it , so they think it's dark out.
Ceramic heating elements Ceramic heating elements do not provide light but produce a lot of heat. They screw into a fixture just like a light bulb but due to the extreme heat must only be used in a fixture with a ceramic socket. This fixture can be mounted on top of terrarium in a manner similar to a basking lamp.
Under tank heaters Under tank heat sources such as heating pads or tapes are a good choice for supplementing heat provided by a basking light or to provide heat at night. Hot rocks Hot rocks should generally be avoided as they can get quite warm or even have hot spots. They don't help with heating the whole terrarium and can burn a reptile resting on one, causing injury and sometimes even death. With newer technology today, there are hot rocks available that have been developed to prevent the problems of over-heating and hot spots.
They have controlled heating elements for setting the desired temperature and thermal conductive resins that cover the stone for even heat distribution.
However, these thermal controlled hot rocks still provide heat only on the rock, so they don't solve the problem of adequately heating the whole terrarium, and as such are not suitable for large lizards or snakes. These specialty bulbs are available through pet stores that sell reptiles.
Incandescent bulbs A full-spectrum incandescent bulb provides heat as well as light. These can be mounted as a basking lamp. They are fine for many lizards, but for lizards that require natural sunlight, it is not adequate. These must have fluorescent lighting. Fluorescent bulbs A full-spectrum fluorescent bulb provides a sunlight replacement for those pets that need full-spectrum lighting.
Not all require this, but those that do will be at risk if they don't get it. These include many diurnal, or day-time active lizards and tortoises. Of course, natural sunlight is the best source of full-spectrum lighting. Flooring Covering There are a variety of floor coverings that can be used for your pet, but they all have their own considerations. One of the primary considerations in choosing floor coverings is cleanliness. Be wary of harmful micro-organisms.
Reptile cage carpets Reptile cage carpets are often an ideal floor covering. They are made for your pet, not for human floors, so they are not abrasive to your pets skin. They are also easy to remove and clean.
Household carpets are not made for reptiles, they are chemically treated and are designed for abrasion. Reptile sand Sand is sometimes used, but it tends to cling to herptiles feet and to get into their food.
It can be very harmful if it is ingested. Gravel is a better choice, but should be washed and disinfected. There is a calcium sand available that is said to be digestible, however is should be used with caution as impaction problems have been said to occur with some herps.
Other substrates Other options are shredded barks and packaged peat mosses, but be mindful of cleanliness. Cage Decor Cage decor is very important for your pet. It provides their sense of security through shelters and camouflaging. It also includes maintenance things, like food and water dishes and heating devices.
Some standard decor items are rocks, basking limbs and plants. Wash everything you put in. Sand or logs that you collect from outside needs to be cleaned and bleached or sterilized in a slow oven degrees to degrees for two to three hours.
Wood limbs and rocks are very natural additions, but make sure they don't have any sharp parts that can injure your pet. Limbs can be sealed with polyurethane varnish to prevent places for parasites to live. These can be used in dry land or aquatic terrariums. Aquarium plants, such as elodea anacharis , can do well in aquatic terrariums. Herptile Cage Care Cage maintenance is an important part of keeping reptiles and amphibians healthy, and long-lived.
With most herptiles being kept in a confined area as pets, they need to be protected from harmful micro-organisms and parasites. The reptile cage also needs daily and weekly maintenance. Things you will need to do for your herps home include:. Herptile Diet Types and Foods Whether you are keeping reptiles or amphibians, the diet varies with each animal.
Yet each herptile has primarily one of three types of diets. Some herps are carnivores - a meat or protein eater, others are herbivores - a plant eater or omnivores - which are animals that eat both plants and proteins. Carnivores Herptiles that are carnivores eat proteins such as rodents, insects and invertebrates. Other proteins include guppies, goldfish, eggs, and some birds.
Some even eat other herptiles, for example a snake will eat a frog and a large lizard will eat a small lizard. Some of the rodents herps will eat include mice, rats, pinkies and fuzzies terms for baby and juvenile mice and rats , rabbits and chickens. These proteins form the basis of many snakes and some lizards diets.
They can be fed live or purchased frozen and completely defrosted before feeding. Be cautious when feeding live adult rats. Snakes that do not feed immediately on an adult rat run the risk of being bitten by a loose rat, and can be severely damaged. Reptile foods for carnivores include: Crickets The most currently fed insects include crickets, which can be purchased in a variety of sizes to fit the herptile you are feeding.
Mealworms Another is mealworms. These are not really worms, but the larval state of the flour beetle. They are low in calcium, and so should be coated with a calcium supplement. Flies Flies can be purchased as larva.
Maltose is, technically, a double sugar , since it is composed of two molecules of the simple sugar glucose bonded together. The digestive enzyme maltase catalyzes a reaction in which a molecule of water is inserted at the point at which the two glucose units are linked, thereby disconnecting them, as illustrated below.
In chemical terms, the maltose has been hydrolyzed. All digestive enzymes act in a similar way and thus are hydrolyzing enzymes. Many other nutrient molecules are much more complex, being polymers, or long chains of simple component units. Starch , for example, is a carbohydrate, like maltose, but its molecules are composed of thousands of glucose units bonded together.
Even so, the digestion of starch is essentially the same as the digestion of maltose: Protein molecules also are polymers, but their constituent units are amino acids instead of simple sugars.
Because as many as 20 different kinds of amino acids may act as building blocks for proteins, the complete digestion of a protein into its amino acids requires the action of several different proteolytic enzymes, each capable of hydrolyzing the bonds between particular pairs of amino acids.
Fat molecules too are composed of smaller building-block units the alcohol glycerol plus three fatty acid groups ; they are hydrolyzed by the enzyme lipase. Various other classes of compounds are digested by hydrolytic enzymes specific for them. Not all of these enzymes occur in every organism; for example, few animals possess cellulase cellulose-digesting enzyme , despite the fact that cellulose constitutes much of the total bulk of the food ingested by plant-eating animals.
Some nonetheless benefit from the cellulose in their diet because their digestive tracts contain microorganisms known as symbionts capable of digesting cellulose. So far, emphasis has been placed on the role of digestion in converting large complex molecules into smaller simpler ones that can move across membranes, which thus permits absorption of food into cells.
The same processes occur when substances must be moved from cell to cell within a multicellular organism. Thus, green plants, which do not have to digest incoming nutrients, digest stored material, such as starch, before it can be transported from storage organs tubers, bulbs, corms to points of utilization, such as growing buds. Animals that ingest bulk food unavoidably take in some matter that they are incapable of using.
In the case of unicellular organisms that form food vacuoles, the vacuoles eventually fuse with the cell membrane and then rupture, releasing indigestible wastes to the outside.
Substances that cannot be digested, such as cellulose, pass into the colon, or large intestine. There water and ions such as sodium and chloride are reabsorbed, and the remaining solid material is held until it is expelled through the anus. Fecal constituents in species with an alimentary canal also include cast-off effete damaged or worn-out cells from the living mucous membrane and, in higher animals, bacteria that exist in the intestine in a symbiotic relationship.
In the higher animals, the life span of a cell from the mucosal epithelium is four to eight days, and the life span of the specialized cells, such as the acid-secreting parietal cells located in the stomach, is one to three years. We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind. Your contribution may be further edited by our staff, and its publication is subject to our final approval.
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