Nutrition Surveillance System (NSS) - Chhattisgarh

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The data gathered by the NNMB informs the policy intervention to address under-nutrition. The medical device industry- the price control mechanism would not bode well in creating a conducive environment for FDI in the country Confederation of Indian Industry CII: Saw, The economic cost of myopia in adults aged over 40 years in Singapore, Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 54 12 , , Because of its high loss ratio, public sector insurance companies have been unable to procure reinsurance coverage. Ethno -pharmacological Surrey of Medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and cardiac diseases in the South-East Region of Morocco. Nov, 28, [pib] What is Family Planning ? Pilibhit, Uttar Pradesh Apply by:

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Social determinants approach to maternal deaths

At the other end of the spectrum were older women with a history of several pregnancies. In addition to being responsible for their daily household chores, most of the deceased women were wage labourers or agriculture workers.

Some of them were also migrant workers and some worked until the last month of their pregnancy. Four of the women were community level workers in public institutions - the lowest and most peripheral workers in the hierarchy of these institutions. Altogether, it was very likely that these women came from extremely poor conditions. Almost 45 percent of the women who died were from scheduled tribes and a further 17 percent were from scheduled castes 1.

At least six out of the women who died in this sample were migrants either from within the state or from other states. Another group of women who were especially vulnerable and were excluded from care were those in remote hamlets, a typical feature of most tribal villages as well as most of rural India.

Families revealed that these hamlets did not receive any services at all. Sheela was a 17 year old adivasi tribal girl in Chhattisgarh. Her family had been resettled because her village was in an area declared a tiger reserve.

The resettlement village was 10 km away from the road and was inaccessible during the rains. There was no Anganwadi Centre 2 in the village, the ANM did not visit there and no immunization took place. Sheela, who was pregnant with her first child, did therefore not have any antenatal care. She delivered at home, developed post-partum haemorrhage and died before the family could get a vehicle to transport her to a facility.

Women's lack of decision making, a lesser value placed on their lives, and the health system's neglect of issues affecting women, all came up in the narratives.

Son preference as an overarching determinant of maternal death came up in the stories of two women. One of them was diagnosed with a heart ailment in her earlier pregnancy. She already had three children including one son, but the desire for two sons, propelled her to the fourth pregnancy despite her family being aware of the risk.

In another maternal death case, social stigma and lack of care was highlighted in relation to the pregnancy of an unmarried woman, dying after an unsafe abortion. Lack of availability of emergency obstetric care and its poor quality emerged as a significant issue from our analysis of maternal deaths.

In at least 38 of the maternal deaths there was a clear lack of adequate health care services the so called 3rddelay 3. Blood seemed to be unavailable in emergencies. In situations of emergency, blood transfusion was either delayed or inadequate. This was noted for at least 46 percent of the maternal deaths we documented, with probable causes of death such as post-partum haemorrhage, anaemia and ante-partum haemorrhage.

At least 12 of the women who died had not received any form of antenatal care at all and anaemia was the cause of 22 deaths contributing to at least 4 more deaths. Prevention, detection and treatment of anaemia did not seem to be a priority during antenatal care. Of our sample of deaths, 82 deaths took place in the post-partum period, with 52 of these happening in the first 24 hours after delivery.

However, post-partum care was found to be highly inadequate both within the facility and in the community. Post-partum care largely seemed to be absent in facilities and women were discharged soon after delivery and families left to fend for them in the case of any complication. Once the woman was discharged from a facility, there seemed to be no system of following her up at home and providing any care to her.

Referrals and emergency transport. Of the maternal deaths documented, women attempted to seek care in a health facility and died either in a facility or on way to it. Further, due to refusal by the admitting hospital due to lack of funds and other reasons36 of the women who dies visited three or more facilities seeking care when they were faced with an obstetric emergency.

One of the women visited as many as 7 facilities in search of care. While there was difficulty in getting vehicles to transport women from one facility to another, families often also narrated that they faced difficulties in getting designated ambulances or vehicles to come to their homes to pick up women during an emergency.

Several system-induced vulnerabilities could be seen in the narratives. Policies and programmes of the government meant to improve health outcomes, actually affect the most vulnerable most adversely. The development of plant will take place in three phases of MW.

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Cuisines — styles of cooking characterized by distinctive ingredients, techniques and dishes, each usually associated with a specific culture or geographic region. Meals — eating occasions that take place at a certain time and includes specific prepared food. Food and drink Chocolate — raw or processed food produced from the seed of the tropical Theobroma cacao tree.

Wine — alcoholic beverage made from fermented fruit juice typically from grapes. Recreation and Entertainment — any activity which provides a diversion or permits people to amuse themselves in their leisure time. Entertainment is generally passive, such as watching opera or a movie.

Festivals — entertainment events centering on and celebrating a unique aspect of a community, usually staged by that community.

Spy fiction — genre of fiction concerning forms of espionage James Bond — fictional character created in by writer Ian Fleming. Since then, the character has grown to icon status, featured in many novels, movies, video games and other media.

Martin, home to dragons, White Walkers, and feuding noble houses. Middle-earth — fantasy setting by writer J. Tolkien, home to hobbits, orcs, and many other mystical races and creatures. Narnia — fantasy setting by C. Lewis, home to talking animals, centaurs, witches, and many other mythical creatures and characters.

Science fiction — a genre of fiction dealing with imaginary but more or less plausible or at least nonsupernatural content such as future settings, futuristic science and technology, space travel, aliens, giant monsters Kaiju , and paranormal abilities.

Exploring the consequences of scientific innovations is one purpose of science fiction, making it a "literature of ideas". Star Trek — sci-fi setting created by Gene Roddenberry, focused mostly upon the adventures of the personnel of Star Fleet of the United Federation of Planets and their exploration and interaction with the regions of space within and beyond their borders.

Games — structured playing, usually undertaken for enjoyment, involving goals, rules, challenge, and interaction. Board games — tabletop games that involve counters or pieces moved or placed on a pre-marked surface or "board", according to a set of rules.

Chess — two-player board game played on a chessboard, a square-checkered board with 64 squares arranged in an eight-by-eight grid. Each player begins the game with sixteen pieces: One king, one queen, two rooks, two knights, two bishops, and eight pawns.

Card games — game using playing cards as the primary device with which the game is played, be they traditional or game-specific. Poker — family of card games that share betting rules and usually but not always hand rankings. Video games — electronic games that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device.

Sports — organized, competitive, entertaining, and skillful activity requiring commitment, strategy, and fair play, in which a winner can be defined by objective means. Generally speaking, a sport is a game based in physical athleticism. Ball games Baseball — bat-and-ball sport played between two teams of nine players each where the aim is to score runs by hitting a thrown ball with a bat and touching a series of four bases arranged at the corners of a ninety-foot diamond.

Basketball — team sport in which two teams of five players try to score points by throwing or "shooting" a ball through the top of a basketball hoop while following a set of rules. Golf — club and ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible.

Tennis — sport usually played between two players singles or between two teams of two players each doubles , using specialized racquets to strike a felt-covered hollow rubber ball over a net into the opponent's court. Combat sports Fencing — family of combat sports using bladed weapons. Martial arts — extensive systems of codified practices and traditions of combat, practiced for a variety of reasons, including self-defense, competition, physical health and fitness, as well as mental and spiritual development.

Boating Canoeing and kayaking — two closely related forms of watercraft paddling, involving manually propelling and navigating specialized boats called canoes and kayaks using a blade that is joined to a shaft, known as a paddle, in the water. Sailing — using sailboats for sporting purposes. It can be recreational or competitive. Competitive sailing is in the form of races. Cycling — use of bicycles or other non-motorized cycles for transport, recreation, or for sport.

Also called bicycling or biking. Motorcycling — riding a motorcycle. A variety of subcultures and lifestyles have been built up around motorcycling and motorcycle racing. Running — moving rapidly on foot, during which both feet are off the ground at regular intervals. Skiing — mode of transport, recreational activity and competitive winter sport in which the participant uses skis to glide on snow. Humanities — academic disciplines that study the human condition, using methods that are primarily analytical, critical, or speculative, as distinguished from the mainly empirical approaches of the natural sciences.

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BC — Late Antiquity ca. Biology below Health — Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being. Exercise — any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness. It is performed for various reasons including strengthening muscles and the cardiovascular system, honing athletic skills, weight loss or maintenance, and mental health including the prevention of depression. Frequent and regular physical exercise boosts the immune system, and helps prevent the "diseases of affluence" such as heart disease , cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity.

Nutrition — provision, to cells and organisms, of the materials necessary in the form of food to support life. Life extension — The study of slowing down or reversing the processes of aging to extend both the maximum and average lifespan. Health sciences — applied sciences that address the use of science, technology, engineering or mathematics in the delivery of healthcare to human beings. Medicine — science and art of healing. It encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness.

Anesthesia — a way to control pain during a surgery or procedure by using medicine called anesthetics. Cardiology — branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the human heart. The field includes medical diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart defects, coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease and electrophysiology. Clinical research — aspect of biomedical research that addresses the assessment of new pharmaceutical and biological drugs, medical devices and vaccines in humans.

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Emergency physicians undertake acute investigations and interventions to resuscitate and stabilize patients. Obstetrics — medical specialty dealing with the care of all women's reproductive tracts and their children during pregnancy prenatal period , childbirth and the postnatal period. Psychiatry — medical specialty devoted to the study and treatment of mental disorders.

These mental disorders include various affective, behavioural, cognitive and perceptual abnormalities. Autism a mental condition, present from early childhood, characterized by great difficulty in communicating and forming relationships with other people and in using language and abstract concepts. Psychiatric survivors movement — is a diverse association of individuals who either currently access mental health services known as consumers or service users , or who are survivors of interventions by psychiatry, or who are ex-patients of mental health.

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Soviet Union — socialist state on the Eurasian continent that existed from to A union of multiple subnational Soviet republics, its government and economy were highly centralized. It was a major ally during World War II, a main participant in the Cold War, and it grew in power to become one of the world's two superpowers the other being the United States. The Soviet Union collapsed in History, by subject History, by field History of art timeline History of painting History of business History of geography History of mathematics timeline History of political science timeline History of science timeline History of technology timeline Prehistoric technology Historical sciences — fields dealing with history Archaeology timeline Geology timeline Geological history Biology timeline Astronomy timeline History of terrorism Terrorism in the United States September 11 attacks Wars American Civil War — civil war in the United States of America from — in which 11 Southern slave states tried to secede.

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It was the most widespread, largest, most costly, and deadliest war in history. Cold War timeline — period of political and military tension between the Western Bloc and the Eastern Bloc, accentuated by the rivalry between the two superpowers at that time: This war followed the First Indochina War and was fought between North Vietnam, supported by its communist allies, and the government of South Vietnam, supported by the United States and other anti-communist nations.

Mathematics — study of quantity, structure, space, and change. Mathematicians seek out patterns, and formulate new conjectures. Lists of mathematics topics Arithmetic — oldest and most elementary branch of mathematics, involving the study of quantity, especially as the result of combining numbers.

The simplest arithmetical operations include addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Algebra — branch of mathematics concerning the study of the rules of operations and relations, and the constructions and concepts arising from them, including terms, polynomials, equations and algebraic structures.

Calculus is the study of change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of operations and their application to solving equations. Category theory — branch of mathematics examining the properties of mathematical structures in terms of collections of objects and arrows Discrete mathematics — study of mathematical structures that are fundamentally discrete rather than continuous.

In contrast to real numbers that have the property of varying "smoothly", the objects studied in discrete mathematics — such as integers, graphs, and statements in logic — do not vary smoothly in this way, but have distinct, separated values.

Combinatorics — branch of mathematics concerning the study of finite or countable discrete structures. Geometry — one of the oldest branches of mathematics, it is concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.

Topology — developed from geometry, it looks at those properties that do not change even when the figures are deformed by stretching and bending, like dimension. Trigonometry — branch of mathematics that studies triangles and the relationships between their sides and the angles between these sides.

Trigonometry defines the trigonometric functions, which describe those relationships and have applicability to cyclical phenomena, such as waves. Logic — formal systematic study of the principles of valid inference and correct reasoning.

Logic is used in most intellectual activities, but is studied primarily in the disciplines of philosophy, mathematics, semantics, and computer science. Other mathematical sciences — academic disciplines that are primarily mathematical in nature but may not be universally considered subfields of mathematics proper. Statistics — study of the collection, organization, and interpretation of data.

It deals with all aspects of this, including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys and experiments. Regression analysis — techniques for modeling and analyzing several variables, when the focus is on the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. More specifically, regression analysis helps one understand how the typical value of the dependent variable changes when any one of the independent variables is varied, while the other independent variables are held fixed.

Probability — way of expressing knowledge or belief that an event will occur or has occurred. Theoretical computer science — a division or subset of general computer science and mathematics that focuses on more abstract or mathematical aspects of computing and includes the theory of computation. Scientific method — body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge.

To be termed scientific, a method of inquiry must be based on gathering empirical and measurable evidence subject to specific principles of reasoning. Big Science — Metric system — decimal based system of measurement based on the metre and the kilogram, units of measure that were developed in France in and which is now used in most branches on international commerce, science and engineering.

Branches of natural science — also called "the natural sciences", which are: Biology — study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy. Biological phenomena Death — cessation of life; end of life-cycle Branches of biology Anatomy — study of the structure of living things.

Human nervous system — part of the human body that coordinates a person's voluntary and involuntary actions and transmits signals between different parts of the body. Human brain — central organ of the nervous system located in the head of a human being, protected by the skull Biochemistry — study of substances found in biological organisms.

Biophysics — interdisciplinary science that uses the methods of physical science to study biological systems. Studies included under the branches of biophysics span all levels of biological organization, from the molecular scale to whole organisms and ecosystems. Botany — study of plant life. Cell biology — study of cells. Their physiological properties, their structure, the organelles they contain, interactions with their environment, their life cycle, division and death.

Ecology — study of interactions between organisms and their environment. Evolution — study of evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth. Creation—evolution controversy — recurring cultural, political, and theological dispute about the origins of the Earth, of humanity, and of other life. Genetics — study of genes, heredity, and variation in living organisms.

Immunology — study of immune systems in all organisms. Neuroscience — scientific study of the nervous system. Brain mapping — neuroscience techniques for making spatial maps of the human or non-human brain.

Paleontology — study of prehistoric life, including organisms' evolution and interactions with each other and their environments their paleoecology. Dinosaurs — diverse group of animals that were the dominant terrestrial vertebrates for over million years, from the late Triassic period about million years ago until the end of the Cretaceous about 65 million years ago , when the Cretaceous—Paleogene extinction event led to the extinction of most dinosaur species at the close of the Mesozoic era.

Pharmacology — broadly defined as the study of drug action and pharmacokinetics. Physiology — study of how living organisms function. Zoology — study of the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct.

Life forms — living organisms Animals — multicellular, eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom Animalia also called Metazoa. All animals are motile, meaning they can move spontaneously and independently at some point in their lives. Their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop, although some undergo a process of metamorphosis later on in their lives.

All animals are heterotrophs: Ants — more than 12, species of social insects evolved from wasp-like ancestors, that live in organised colonies which may consist of millions of ants. Gastropods — any member of the class Gastropoda, which includes slugs and snails. Birds — feathered, winged, bipedal, endothermic warm-blooded , egg-laying, vertebrate animals.

There are about 10, living species of birds. Fish — any member of a paraphyletic group of organisms that consist of all gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits. Sharks — type of fish with a full cartilaginous skeleton and a highly streamlined body. The earliest known sharks date from more than million years ago. Fungi — group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.

Physical sciences — encompasses the branches of science that study non-living systems, in contrast to the life sciences. However, the term "physical" creates an unintended, somewhat arbitrary distinction, since many branches of physical science also study biological phenomena. Chemistry — study of matter, especially its properties, structure, composition, behavior, reactions, interactions and the changes it undergoes. Organic chemistry — study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation by synthesis or by other means of carbon-based compounds, hydrocarbons, and their derivatives.

Water — chemical substance with the chemical formula H 2 O. Its molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms connected by covalent bonds. Water is a liquid at ambient conditions, but it often co-exists on Earth with its solid state, ice, and gaseous state water vapor or steam.

Earth science — all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth.

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