Everything you Need to Know About Armour Thyroid
I called my vet right away and was informed to take him off the drug right away. One leg even appears lumpy. Tried Benydry but it only made him groggy. He has been on apoquell for a few weeks for itchy skin. There are over articles on PubMed which mention nicotinamide riboside and we are not aware of any that mention serious side effects Androgens such as testosterone , androstenedione and dihydrotestosterone are required for the development of organs in the male reproductive system , including the seminal vesicles , epididymis , vas deferens , penis and prostate. People worry about hair loss, acne, rage, and even testicle shrinkage.
Indications and Usage for Synthroid
Hepatotoxicity liver damage can be caused by many cytotoxic drugs. The susceptibility of an individual to liver damage can be altered by other factors such as the cancer itself, viral hepatitis , immunosuppression and nutritional deficiency. The liver damage can consist of damage to liver cells, hepatic sinusoidal syndrome obstruction of the veins in the liver , cholestasis where bile does not flow from the liver to the intestine and liver fibrosis.
Nephrotoxicity kidney damage can be caused by tumor lysis syndrome and also due direct effects of drug clearance by the kidneys. Different drugs will affect different parts of the kidney and the toxicity may be asymptomatic only seen on blood or urine tests or may cause acute renal failure. Ototoxicity damage to the inner ear is a common side effect of platinum based drugs that can produce symptoms such as dizziness and vertigo.
Less common side-effects include red skin erythema , dry skin, damaged fingernails, a dry mouth xerostomia , water retention , and sexual impotence. Some medications can trigger allergic or pseudoallergic reactions. Specific chemotherapeutic agents are associated with organ-specific toxicities, including cardiovascular disease e.
Chemotherapy does not always work, and even when it is useful, it may not completely destroy the cancer. People frequently fail to understand its limitations. In one study of people who had been newly diagnosed with incurable, stage 4 cancer , more than two-thirds of people with lung cancer and more than four-fifths of people with colorectal cancer still believed that chemotherapy was likely to cure their cancer.
The blood—brain barrier poses an obstacle to delivery of chemotherapy to the brain. This is because the brain has an extensive system in place to protect it from harmful chemicals. Drug transporters can pump out drugs from the brain and brain's blood vessel cells into the cerebrospinal fluid and blood circulation. These transporters pump out most chemotherapy drugs, which reduces their efficacy for treatment of brain tumors. Only small lipophilic alkylating agents such as lomustine or temozolomide are able to cross this blood—brain barrier.
Blood vessels in tumors are very different from those seen in normal tissues. As a tumor grows, tumor cells furthest away from the blood vessels become low in oxygen hypoxic. To counteract this they then signal for new blood vessels to grow. The newly formed tumor vasculature is poorly formed and does not deliver an adequate blood supply to all areas of the tumor. This leads to issues with drug delivery because many drugs will be delivered to the tumor by the circulatory system.
Resistance is a major cause of treatment failure in chemotherapeutic drugs. There are a few possible causes of resistance in cancer, one of which is the presence of small pumps on the surface of cancer cells that actively move chemotherapy from inside the cell to the outside. Cancer cells produce high amounts of these pumps, known as p-glycoprotein , in order to protect themselves from chemotherapeutics.
Research on p-glycoprotein and other such chemotherapy efflux pumps is currently ongoing. Medications to inhibit the function of p-glycoprotein are undergoing investigation, but due to toxicities and interactions with anti-cancer drugs their development has been difficult. This overcomes the effect of drugs that reduce the expression of genes involved in replication. With more copies of the gene, the drug can not prevent all expression of the gene and therefore the cell can restore its proliferative ability.
Cancer cells can also cause defects in the cellular pathways of apoptosis programmed cell death. As most chemotherapy drugs kill cancer cells in this manner, defective apoptosis allows survival of these cells, making them resistant. Many chemotherapy drugs also cause DNA damage, which can be repaired by enzymes in the cell that carry out DNA repair. Upregulation of these genes can overcome the DNA damage and prevent the induction of apoptosis.
Mutations in genes that produce drug target proteins, such as tubulin , can occur which prevent the drugs from binding to the protein, leading to resistance to these types of drugs.
Targeted therapies are a relatively new class of cancer drugs that can overcome many of the issues seen with the use of cytotoxics. They are divided into two groups: The massive toxicity seen with the use of cytotoxics is due to the lack of cell specificity of the drugs. They will kill any rapidly dividing cell, tumor or normal. Targeted therapies are designed to affect cellular proteins or processes that are utilised by the cancer cells. This allows a high dose to cancer tissues with a relatively low dose to other tissues.
Although the side effects are often less severe than that seen of cytotoxic chemotherapeutics, life-threatening effects can occur.
Initially, the targeted therapeutics were supposed to be solely selective for one protein. Now it is clear that there is often a range of protein targets that the drug can bind. An example target for targeted therapy is the protein produced by the Philadelphia chromosome , a genetic lesion found commonly in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. This fusion protein has enzyme activity that can be inhibited by imatinib , a small molecule drug.
Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of cells coupled with malignant behaviour: In the broad sense, most chemotherapeutic drugs work by impairing mitosis cell division , effectively targeting fast-dividing cells. As these drugs cause damage to cells, they are termed cytotoxic. They prevent mitosis by various mechanisms including damaging DNA and inhibition of the cellular machinery involved in cell division. As chemotherapy affects cell division, tumors with high growth rates such as acute myelogenous leukemia and the aggressive lymphomas , including Hodgkin's disease are more sensitive to chemotherapy, as a larger proportion of the targeted cells are undergoing cell division at any time.
Malignancies with slower growth rates, such as indolent lymphomas, tend to respond to chemotherapy much more modestly. Cells from the immune system also make crucial contributions to the antitumor effects of chemotherapy. Some chemotherapy drugs are used in diseases other than cancer, such as in autoimmune disorders,  and noncancerous plasma cell dyscrasia. In some cases they are often used at lower doses, which means that the side effects are minimized,  while in other cases doses similar to ones used to treat cancer are used.
Methotrexate is used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis RA ,  psoriasis ,  ankylosing spondylitis  and multiple sclerosis. Recently, bortezomid in combination with cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone has also shown promise as a treatment for AL amyloidosis. Other drugs used to treat myeloma such as lenalidomide have shown promise in treating AL amyloidosis. Chemotherapy drugs are also used in conditioning regimens prior to bone marow transplant hematopoietic stem cell transplant.
Conditioning regimens are used to suppress the recipient's immune system in order to allow a transplant to engraft. Cyclophosphamide is a common cytotoxic drug used in this manner, and is often used in conjunction with total body irradiation. Chemotherapeutic drugs may be used at high doses to permanently remove the recipient's bone marrow cells myeloablative conditioning or at lower doses that will prevent permanent bone marrow loss non-myeloablative and reduced intensity conditioning.
Healthcare workers exposed to antineoplastic agents take precautions to keep their exposure to a minimum. In addition, physicians and operating room personnel may also be exposed as they treat people. Hospital staff, such as shipping and receiving personnel, custodial workers, laundry workers, and waste handlers, all have potential exposure to these drugs during the course of their work. The increased use of antineoplastic agents in veterinary oncology also puts these workers at risk for exposure to these drugs.
There is an extensive list of antineoplastic agents. Several classification schemes have been used to subdivide the medicines used for cancer into several different types. The first use of small-molecule drugs to treat cancer was in the early 20th century, although the specific chemicals first used were not originally intended for that purpose.
Mustard gas was used as a chemical warfare agent during World War I and was discovered to be a potent suppressor of hematopoiesis blood production.
The survivors were later found to have very low white blood cell counts. The first chemotherapy drug to be developed from this line of research was mustine.
Since then, many other drugs have been developed to treat cancer, and drug development has exploded into a multibillion-dollar industry, although the principles and limitations of chemotherapy discovered by the early researchers still apply. The word chemotherapy without a modifier usually refers to cancer treatment, but its historical meaning was broader. In today's usage , the sense "any treatment of disease with drugs" is often expressed with the word pharmacotherapy.
The top 10 best-selling in terms of revenue cancer drugs of Specially targeted delivery vehicles aim to increase effective levels of chemotherapy for tumor cells while reducing effective levels for other cells. This should result in an increased tumor kill or reduced toxicity or both. Antibody-drug conjugates ADCs comprise an antibody , drug and a linker between them.
The antibody will be targeted at a preferentially expressed protein in the tumour cells known as a tumor antigen or on cells that the tumor can utilise, such as blood vessel endothelial cells. They bind to the tumor antigen and are internalised, where the linker releases the drug into the cell. These specially targeted delivery vehicles vary in their stability, selectivity, and choice of target, but, in essence, they all aim to increase the maximum effective dose that can be delivered to the tumor cells.
The first approved drug of this type was gemtuzumab ozogamicin Mylotarg , released by Wyeth now Pfizer. The drug was approved to treat acute myeloid leukemia , but has now been withdrawn from the market because the drug did not meet efficacy targets in further clinical trials. Nanoparticles are 1— nanometer nm sized particles that can promote tumor selectivity and aid in delivering low- solubility drugs. Nanoparticles can be targeted passively or actively.
Passive targeting exploits the difference between tumor blood vessels and normal blood vessels. Active targeting uses biological molecules antibodies , proteins , DNA and receptor ligands to preferentially target the nanoparticles to the tumor cells. There are many types of nanoparticle delivery systems, such as silica , polymers , liposomes and magnetic particles. Nanoparticles made of magnetic material can also be used to concentrate agents at tumor sites using an externally applied magnetic field.
Electrochemotherapy is the combined treatment in which injection of a chemotherapeutic drug is followed by application of high-voltage electric pulses locally to the tumor. The treatment enables the chemotherapeutic drugs, which otherwise cannot or hardly go through the membrane of cells such as bleomycin and cisplatin , to enter the cancer cells.
Hence, greater effectiveness of antitumor treatment is achieved. Clinical electrochemotherapy has been successfully used for treatment of cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors irrespective of their histological origin. Hyperthermia therapy is heat treatment for cancer that can be a powerful tool when used in combination with chemotherapy thermochemotherapy or radiation for the control of a variety of cancers.
The heat can be applied locally to the tumor site, which will dilate blood vessels to the tumor, allowing more chemotherapeutic medication to enter the tumor. Additionally, the tumor cell membrane will become more porous, further allowing more of the chemotherapeutic medicine to enter the tumor cell.
Hyperthermia has also been shown to help prevent or reverse "chemo-resistance. In regard to the potential benefit that drug-resistant cells can be recruited for effective therapy by combining chemotherapy with hyperthermia, it was important to show that chemoresistance against several anticancer drugs e. Chemotherapy is used in veterinary medicine similar to how it is used in human medicine.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about cancer treatment. For antimicrobial chemotherapy, see Antimicrobial chemotherapy. For the journal, see Chemotherapy journal. For the journal, see Anti-Cancer Drugs. This article needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.
This article needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources. Please review the contents of the article and add the appropriate references if you can. Unsourced or poorly sourced material may be challenged and removed. A woman being treated with docetaxel chemotherapy for breast cancer. Cold mittens and wine coolers are placed on her hands and feet to reduce harm to her nails. Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. List of antineoplastic agents.
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Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Retrieved 10 October Workplace Safety and Health. Journal of the American College of Surgeons. Use of methyl-bis beta-chloroethyl amine hydrochloride and tris beta-chloroethyl amine hydrochloride for Hodgkin's disease, lymphosarcoma, leukemia and certain allied and miscellaneous disorders". The War on Cancer.
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Ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor Hydroxycarbamide. Busulfan Mannosulfan Treosulfan Aziridines: Research published in the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition indicates that vegans and some strict vegetarians have low levels of vitamin B Of vegans studied, over half were classed as being deficient in vitamin B The deficiency was observed in just 7 percent of the vegetarians studied, and in only one of the omnivores.
Vegetarian or vegan women who are pregnant will need to be especially careful about supplementing or consuming fortified foods, as vitamin B transfers to the baby via the placenta and breast milk. Infants who have vitamin B deficiency can experience permanent and severe neurological issues.
The most obvious benefit of receiving vitamin B shots is treating a vitamin B deficiency and avoiding its associated symptoms. In addition, B shots reduce the risk of some serious complications associated with vitamin B deficiency including:.
Therefore, they are a better option than oral supplements for those who have gastrointestinal issues, including older adults who have low levels of stomach acid or intrinsic factor. There is no upper limit for the intake of vitamin B because the risk of toxicity or overdose is extremely low. Mild side effects and potential risks, which should be referred to a doctor if they persist or worsen, include:.
Vitamin B may interact with certain medications. People must always inform their doctor about all prescription and over-the-counter drugs they are taking before receiving a B shot. Those who have allergies or medical conditions should always inform their doctor before receiving a B shot.
Article last reviewed by Tue 4 July All references are available in the References tab. Serum concentrations of vitamin B12 and folate in British male omnivores, vegetarians and vegans: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition , 64 9 , The BMJ , , Dietary supplement fact sheet.
Vitamin B12 deficiency in the elderly: Is it worth screening? Hong Kong Medical Journal , 21 2 , MNT is the registered trade mark of Healthline Media. Any medical information published on this website is not intended as a substitute for informed medical advice and you should not take any action before consulting with a healthcare professional. Privacy Terms Ad policy Careers. This page was printed from: Get the most out of Medical News Today. Subscribe to our Newsletter to recieve: Professionally-verified articles Daily or weekly updates Content custom-tailored to your needs Create an account.
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