Cardiovascular System Anatomy
Going keto can help you lose weight, reverse some disease symptoms and is safe when done properly. Additional measures include modifying the environment to enhance physical activity in schools and communities, creating more opportunities for family interaction e. Because the risks of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and hypertension rise continuously with increasing weight, there is much overlap between the prevention of obesity and the prevention of a variety of chronic diseases, especially type 2 diabetes. Appropriate strategies which may help to reduce type 2 diabetes risk in this situation include improving the nutrition of young children, promoting linear growth and preventing energy excess by limiting intake of energy-dense foods, controlling the quality of fat supply, and facilitating physical activity. Excess mortality in a population with diabetes and the impact of material deprivation: More than 25 different anthocyanins have been found in strawberries. In observational epidemiological studies, a high saturated fat intake has been associated with a higher risk of impaired glucose tolerance, and higher fasting glucose and insulin levels
A powerful antioxidant, ascorbic acid vitamin C defends cells against lipid peroxidation and scavenges reactive oxygen and nitrogen species such as hydroxyl, peroxyl, superoxide, nitroxide radical, and peroxynitrite. Ascorbic acid supports phagocytosis by macrophages and stimulates the activity of natural killer lymphocytes generated during the innate immune response. Through its function as a cofactor in enzymes controlling collagen synthesis, vitamin C also reduces tissue damage at inflammation sites.
Vitamin E exists in nature as different chemical structures; the most common forms in the diet are alpha- and gamma-tocopherol. Foods such as seeds, nuts, and vegetable oils are sources of gamma-tocopherol, while supplements commonly contain alpha-tocopherol. Alpha- and gamma-tocopherol have different biological activities. Alpha-tocopherol has long been recognized for its capacity to scavenge free radicals and prevent lipid oxidation. In addition, it inhibits the release of proinflammatory cytokines and reduces CRP levels.
Most clinical trials assessing the anti-inflammatory effects of vitamin E primarily have looked at alpha-tocopherol supplementation and not tocopherols from foods. Alpha-tocopherol significantly decreases circulating levels of gamma-tocopherol, decreasing its anti-inflammatory properties. In addition, alpha- and gamma-tocopherol may have a synergistic effect on inflammation. Vitamin E shows some promise in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis symptoms. These aromatic compounds are found in fruits, vegetables, grains, chocolate, coffee, olive oil, and tea.
To date, thousands of polyphenols have been identified and classified into different subgroups. Flavonoids include the flavanones naringenin and hesperidin found in citrus fruit ; flavonols such as myricetin, kaempferol, and quercetin found in apples, cocoa, and onions ; and the flavones luteolin and apigenin found in celery , catechins found in tea , and anthocyanins found in berries. Phenolic acids caffeic acid, gallic acid, and ferulic acid are found in coffee, olive oil, tea, grains, peanuts, and berries.
Lignans secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol are found primarily in flaxseeds. The polyphenol resveratrol, classified as a stilbenoid, is found in red wine and berries. Many polyphenols show powerful anti-inflammatory effects. Laboratory investigations, clinical trials, and prospective studies suggest that polyphenols inhibit enzymes involved in prostaglandin and leukotriene synthesis, prevent free radical formation, decrease proinflammatory cytokine production, and block the activity of proinflammatory signaling systems.
Prebiotics are defined as nondigestible, nonabsorbable substances that can be fermented by bacteria in the gut, promote the growth of desirable microflora, and impart improvements to health. Prebiotics include oligofructose, a short-chain fructose polymer, and inulin, a type of dietary fiber. Food sources of prebiotics include chicory, Jerusalem artichokes, and onions. Inulin is an additive in many commercially prepared foods and sold as a dietary supplement. Animal studies have shown that both prebiotics and probiotics can decrease the activity of proinflammatory cytokines and NF-kB, and increase levels of anti-inflammatory TGF-beta within the gut mucosa.
Both prebiotics and probiotics appear to interact directly with gut epithelium cells to block pathogens from entering. Clinical trials have helped corroborate the anti-inflammatory effects of prebiotics seen in laboratory studies. Infants and children with diarrheal illness showed marked improvement in symptoms eg, decreased diarrhea, vomiting, fever when given supplemental inulin. Administered to patients with ulcerative colitis or precancerous colon polyps, inulin improved measures of disease activity and reduced levels of intestinal proinflammatory proteins.
The results have been mixed but generally support a role for probiotics in decreasing disease activity and improving clinical symptoms. In addition, consuming cultured dairy foods has been found to alleviate symptoms of IBD, ulcerative colitis, and pouchitis.
Anti-Inflammatory Foods and Dietary Patterns Various foods and dietary patterns are effective in reducing the underlying inflammatory processes associated with chronic disease. A diet high in fruits and vegetables may be one of the best defenses against chronic inflammation. Fruits and vegetables are a highly bioavailable source of vitamins, minerals, fiber, and polyphenols with anti-inflammatory activity. A cross-sectional study investigating self-reported fruit and vegetable intake among adults found that individuals reporting the highest consumption more than two servings of fruit and three servings of vegetables daily had significantly lower plasma levels of proinflammatory CRP, IL-6, and TNF-alpha as well as decreased biomarkers of oxidative stress.
Four to five servings daily each of fruits and vegetables are recommended to combat inflammation and chronic disease. The Mediterranean diet is characterized by the generous consumption of vegetables, fruits, grains, legumes, and nuts; a minimal intake of red meat and whole-fat dairy products; increased fish consumption; moderate red wine intake; and liberal use of olive oil in cooking and food preparation. Compared with Western diets, the Mediterranean diet is rich in fiber, polyphenols, antioxidants, and omega-3 fatty acids and low in saturated fat and refined carbohydrate.
Data from epidemiologic and clinical studies have demonstrated that consuming a Mediterranean-type diet reduces plasma levels of proinflammatory biomarkers, including endothelial adhesion molecules, CRP, TNF-alpha, and NF-kB. High-fiber, low-GI foods appear to have a beneficial effect on inflammatory biomarkers. Adhering to a low-GI diet for one year resulted in significantly lower plasma levels of CRP in a clinical randomized trial of subjects with type 2 diabetes compared with adhering to high-GI and low-carbohydrate diets.
Whole grain foods consist of the unaltered grain with intact bran and germ components, which are valuable sources of fiber, phytochemicals, vitamins, and minerals.
Prospective and clinical studies have suggested that consuming whole grain foods such as oats, barley, and brown rice may help decrease inflammation associated with metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Weight loss is known to have beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and other chronic conditions. Additional research is needed to identify the independent and interactive effects of foods and nutrients and to evaluate the protective role of supplements in fighting inflammation.
Clinical Recommendations There are many simple dietary strategies that may effectively reduce levels of chronic inflammation and decrease disease risk. In addition, they may be unaware of the role diet plays in affecting the inflammatory processes underlying many chronic illnesses.
Dietitians can support their clients and patients by emphasizing dietary changes that will help reduce inflammation levels in the body and begin to restore normal immune function. Encouraging clients to increase their intake of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, olive oil, and fatty fish is a positive message that can accompany advice to reduce their consumption of refined starches and sweets, and foods laden with trans and saturated fat.
Focusing on personalized goals and setting achievable objectives eg, eat an extra serving of fruit at lunch is key to helping clients make lasting dietary changes that will combat inflammation and enhance overall health.
The right foods can help reduce the amount of inflammation in the body and improve health. Here are 10 suggestions for clients and patients for eating to decrease inflammation:.
Boost consumption of fruits and vegetables. Aim to eat four to five servings each of fruits and vegetables daily. Choose fruits and vegetables that are deep green, orange, yellow, and purple, since these have the greatest nutritional value. Ten servings per day may sound like too much, but serving sizes are small: Cook with olive oil as much as possible and use it to make salad dressings.
Virgin olive oil is best since it has more inflammation-fighting antioxidants than refined olive oil. Snack on walnuts instead of chips. Walnuts provide fiber, minerals, antioxidants, and the kinds of fatty acids that are good for your heart.
Eat a whole grain cereal such as oatmeal for breakfast, and replace refined grains with whole grains, such as substituting brown rice for white rice. Eat fatty fish such as salmon two to three times per week to get more omega-3 fatty acids. Wild salmon has more omega-3s than farmed salmon. Eat fewer fast foods. Many tend to be cooked in oils that contain trans fatty acids, which increase inflammation. If you eat at fast-food restaurants, order a grilled chicken sandwich or salad with vinaigrette dressing.
Replace white potatoes with sweet potatoes. Cut down on sugary drinks such as juice, soda, and punch. Add small amounts of cider, fruit juice, or wedges of lemon or orange to plain water to enhance the flavor. Eat more lentils and beans. Try black beans and brown rice sautéed with onions and garlic and seasoned with cumin. Munch on dark chocolate and fresh raspberries for dessert.
Both are loaded with antioxidants. Learning Objectives After completing this continuing education course, nutrition professionals should be better able to:. Assess the potential benefits of anti-inflammatory foods and nutrients to clients and patients.
Abdominal obesity has which of the following effects? It increases circulating levels of C-reactive protein CRP. It decreases circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines. It decreases fat cell necrosis. It normalizes adipose cell adipokine activity. Foods rich in polyphenols help fight inflammation by which of the following mechanisms? They decrease anti-inflammatory cytokine production. They inhibit enzymes involved in prostaglandin and leukotriene synthesis.
They reduce omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratios. What are the two types of adaptive immunity? Innate and receptive b. Humoral and cell mediated c.
Antigenic and phagocytic d. Based on this article, which of the following statements about metabolic syndrome is true? Which of the following is true of prebiotics and probiotics, based on this article?
Both are strains of lactobacillus bacteria. Both are found in foods and are available as dietary supplements. Neither is effective in reducing gastrointestinal disease activity. Both can be obtained by eating cultured dairy foods. Which of the following are two examples of proinflammatory cytokines? CRP and serum amyloid A b. Interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha c. Transforming growth factor beta and nuclear factor kappa B NF-kB d. Fibrinogen and clotting factor VII.
Suppression of proinflammatory eicosanoids b. Conversion of linoleic acid to arachidonic acid c. Strengthening of the gut mucosa d. Stimulation of collagen synthesis. Acute phase reactants are biomarkers of chronic inflammation. A positive acute phase reactant has which of the following effects?
Decreases during chronic inflammation b. Increases during chronic inflammation c. Increases when inflammation subsides d. Decreases when proinflammatory cytokines are released.
A diet low in refined carbohydrate and that limits high glycemic index foods may reduce inflammation in which of the following ways? By stimulating interleukin 1 secretion b. By decreasing free radical production c. By shutting off CRP synthesis in the liver d. By increasing NF-kB transcription factor activity. Which of the following causes difficulty in evaluating the effects of vitamin E on inflammation? Alpha-tocopherol enhances the activity of gamma-tocopherol.
Few foods contain vitamin E. Vitamin E is poorly absorbed. The vitamin E supplements evaluated in clinical trials typically are composed of only alpha-tocopherol. Inflammation and metabolic disorders. Inflammatory disease processes and interactions with nutrition.
Atherosclerosis, cancer, wound healing, and inflammation—shared or parallel evolution. J Clin Exp Cardiolog. Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Disease. Tian B, Brasier AR. Potassium is a natural pain desensitizer. Potassium helps control convulsions, headaches and migraines, promotes faster healing of cuts, bruises and other injuries and generally contributes to a sense of well being.
Potassium is stored in the muscles. Body builders use a "potassium load" to give their muscles more energy but there is no scientific proof of its effectiveness. Potassium naturally wants to bind to something to form a potassium compound. Since the human body is very inefficient at breaking down compound minerals, only a small percentage of the Potassium we consume actually gets used.
To be utilized, Potassium must be in elemental form. The Potassium molecule needs be small enough to enter an individual cell, and it must be inside a water molecule. Thus, Potassium must be water-soluble. Water-soluble minerals cannot build up in the body. Therefore they do not reach toxic levels. You can also get your potassium by eating lots of produce - bananas, orange juice, dried dates, and apricots. You need about 3, mg daily, but over-the-counter supplements contain no more than 99 mg.
The small amount of potassium in your multivitamin is fine, and don't take more than 99 mg daily in supplement form because it can irritate your stomach. The effective dose of potassium you need? Take a multivitamin and eat at least five servings of fruits and vegetables daily. Potassium taken in excess can throw off your electrolyte balance and slow your heart down to dangerous levels. Potassium supplementation is, however, important for people taking certain types of diuretics, those that are non-potassium sparing such as Lasix.
Some Symptoms of Potassium Deficiency include poor circulation, bluish tint to skin, Chronic-Fatigue Syndrome, diabetes, earaches, edema, headaches, heart palpitations, hypertension, insomnia, intestinal pain, muscle weakness, oppressive breathing, pain in the eyes, prolapsed uterus, swollen glands, tissue anemia, and water retention. All wasting diseases are associated with loss of potassium from the tissues. Potassium deficiency disturbs the excitability of tissues and leads to paralysis of muscle, including cardiac muscle.
Sodium and potassium are two of the most important ions in maintaining the homeostatic equilibrium of the body fluids. It is important that one be very careful in choosing a top quality supplement manufacturer when buying your mineral, including potassium. Take the following precautions when doing so:.