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Soil Management is a practical guide for farm managers and professional agronomists - helping them solve every day cropland soil problems. Watering and water source is of great importance. One thing that may help you is Rhodiola Rosea. One systemic problem can often be overcome by one altruist in the right place. Insanity is a disease that has been common throughout history within every culture of the world, invoking diverse views of understanding and the development of numerous treatment methods.

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Meal frequency and timing in health and disease

She developed and taught courses for the Certified Natural Health Professional under the direction of Dr. She enjoys sewing, cooking, natural health, continuing education, gardening, and keeping a small hive of bees.

Marcu cultivated a love of trees from an early age and has spent her life studying plants, particularly medical and healing plants. As a highly-respected researcher and clinical pharmacologist, she has worked in clinical pharmacies and biomedical research laboratories around the world. She is the author of the book Miracle Tree. Johnson pioneered evidence-based essential oil therapy, which combines the art of ancient healing with modern science to maximize the benefits of essential oils.

He moved his practice to Orem, Utah, and after ten years he formed a partnership with another Utah doctor to start the Integrative Medical Associates. Johnson enjoys spending time with his wife, kids, grandkids, and loves exercising and golfing. Nicole Johnson got her B. Utah in , amongst other figure titles. She has five children ranging in age from 4 to 17 who she adores and chases, all day every day.

Her true passion in life is educating people and helping them live a healthier life, even on the run. Shelly Maguire has developed and brought to market over 50 anti-aging skin care products since During her career, her other entrepreneurial endeavors include founding and running a chain of high-end beauty spas with over employees and creating an accredited continuing education program for massage therapists and estheticians.

Diagnosed at the age of 12 with the incurable disease, Cystic Fibrosis, and given a life expectancy of 18 years, Shelly became interested in health and wellness to help combat her disease as well as her own skin challenges.

She has used her own life experiences to inspire, motivate and help women and men worldwide! Her passion to help others and interact with them personally, has led her to the direct sales industry. The Zija Difference Since , Zija International has been dedicated to supplying the world with nutrition-packed supplements and creating premium products that meet an unprecedented standard of excellence.

Our Moringa Farms Not all Moringa is created equal—its nutritional content can vary significantly depending on location. Monica Marcu More About Moringa. Highly Selective Sourcing, Uncompromised Quality Each farm and its growing and harvesting procedures are meticulously assessed through site visits to ensure sustainability and ethicality toward environment and employees, eco-friendly practices, and raw material excellence.

Joshua Plant Long-Standing Partnerships. Perfecting the Process From hand-planted seeds to hand-picked botanicals, we like to be meticulous in our preparation to ensure our products are equipped with excellence. Harvesting the Essentials We carefully preserve the Moringa leaves, seeds, and fruits—the most beneficial parts of the tree—for our products and leave out the nutrient-deprived branches that are ordinarily used as filler in other Moringa products. How does it work? How hot does it get in there?

Monica Marcu Consuming Moringa. When we prepare Améo Essential Oils, we use two common methods of extractions: Zija Product Advisory Council Zija has curated an experienced and expert group of professionals to help us maintain the highest caliber of research and development, sourcing, validation, and delivery practices for our products.

Lot Code Tests and Transparency Where the Zija Difference really sets itself apart is in the opportunity we give each customer to verify our quality first hand. We Guarantee Our Products: The Canary Current is an eastern boundary current of the North Atlantic Gyre and is also separated due to the presence of the Canary Islands.

Finally, the Humboldt Current or the Peru Current flows west along the coast of South America from Peru to Chile and extends up to 1, kilometers offshore. Upwelling at the equator is associated with the Intertropical Convergence Zone ITCZ which actually moves, and consequently, is often located just north or south of the equator.

Although there are no Coriolis forces present along the equator, upwelling still occurs just north and south of the equator. This results in a divergence, with denser, nutrient-rich water being upwelled from below, and results in the remarkable fact that the equatorial region in the Pacific can be detected from space as a broad line of high phytoplankton concentration.

Large-scale upwelling is also found in the Southern Ocean. Here, strong westerly eastward winds blow around Antarctica , driving a significant flow of water northwards.

This is actually a type of coastal upwelling. Since there are no continents in a band of open latitudes between South America and the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, some of this water is drawn up from great depths. In many numerical models and observational syntheses, the Southern Ocean upwelling represents the primary means by which deep dense water is brought to the surface.

In some regions of Antarctica, wind-driven upwelling near the coast pulls relatively warm Circumpolar deep water onto the continental shelf, where it can enhance ice shelf melt and influence ice sheet stability. Some models of the ocean circulation suggest that broad-scale upwelling occurs in the tropics, as pressure driven flows converge water toward the low latitudes where it is diffusively warmed from above. The required diffusion coefficients, however, appear to be larger than are observed in the real ocean.

Nonetheless, some diffusive upwelling does probably occur. Upwelling intensity depends on wind strength and seasonal variability, as well as the vertical structure of the water , variations in the bottom bathymetry , and instabilities in the currents. In some areas, upwelling is a seasonal event leading to periodic bursts of productivity similar to spring blooms in coastal waters.

Wind-induced upwelling is generated by temperature differences between the warm, light air above the land and the cooler denser air over the sea. In temperate latitudes , the temperature contrast is greatly seasonably variable, creating periods of strong upwelling in the spring and summer, to weak or no upwelling in the winter.

For example, off the coast of Oregon, there are four or five strong upwelling events separated by periods of little to no upwelling during the six-month season of upwelling. In contrast, tropical latitudes have a more constant temperature contrast, creating constant upwelling throughout the year. The Peruvian upwelling, for instance, occurs throughout most of the year, resulting in one of the world's largest marine fisheries for sardines and anchovies.

In anomalous years when the trade winds weaken or reverse, the water that is upwelled is much warmer and low in nutrients, resulting in a sharp reduction in the biomass and phytoplankton productivity. The Peruvian upwelling system is particularly vulnerable to ENSO events, and can cause extreme interannual variability in productivity.

Changes in bathymetry can affect the strength of an upwelling. For example, a submarine ridge that extends out from the coast will produce more favorable upwelling conditions than neighboring regions. Upwelling typically begins at such ridges and remains strongest at the ridge even after developing in other locations. Since upwelling regions are important sources of marine productivity, and they attract hundreds of species throughout the trophic levels, the diversity of these systems has been a focal point for marine research.

While studying the trophic levels and patterns typical of upwelling regions, researchers have discovered that upwelling systems exhibit a wasp-waist richness pattern. In this type of pattern, the high and low trophic levels are well-represented by high species diversity. However, the intermediate trophic level is only represented by one or two species. This trophic layer, which consists of small, pelagic fish usually makes up about only three to four percent of the species diversity of all fish species present.

The lower trophic layers are very well-represented with about species of copepods , species of gastropods , and species of crustaceans on average.

At the apex and near-apex trophic levels, there are usually about species of marine mammals and about 50 species of marine birds. The vital intermediate trophic species however are small pelagic fish that usually feed on phytoplankton. In most upwelling systems, these species are either anchovies or sardines, and usually only one is present, although two or three species may be present occasionally.

These fish are an important food source for predators, such as large pelagic fish, marine mammals, and marine birds. Although they are not at the base of the trophic pyramid, they are the vital species that connect the entire marine ecosystem and keep the productivity of upwelling zones so high [11]. A major threat to both this crucial intermediate trophic level and the entire upwelling trophic ecosystem is the problem of commercial fishing.

Since upwelling regions are the most productive and species rich areas in the world, they attract a high number of commercial fishers and fisheries. On one hand, this is another benefit of the upwelling process as it serves as a viable source of food and income for so many people and nations besides marine animals.

However, just as in any ecosystem, the consequences of over-fishing from a population could be detrimental to that population and the ecosystem as a whole. In upwelling ecosystems, every species present plays a vital role in the functioning of that ecosystem. If one species is significantly depleted, that will have an effect throughout the rest of the trophic levels. For example, if a popular prey species is targeted by fisheries, fishermen may collect hundreds of thousands of individuals of this species just by casting their nets into the upwelling waters.

A lot of prescription painkiller ODs are actually from the poison that the government puts in the painkillers to kill you if you take too much, rather than from the opiates. So it would be nice if the government stopped doing that.

To be fair, the acetaminophen content of a Vicodin pill is medicine. It merely happens to be a medicine that will destroy your liver if you take too much. I had the impression that heroin is the type of thing that people tend to OD on and die.

Because paraphernalia is outlawed, people share needles and re-use needles which might be dirty or blunt or infected. Because use and sale is illegal people use those needles to shoot up in unsafe places.

Both of those lead to a risk of HIV, infections, vein damage etcetera that would go away if you could easily get clean cheap needles and buy a cheap reliable known dose and get help administering it in the equivalent of a pot cafe.

Because the drug is illegal it is very expensive and hard to get in a consistent known potency level, so people can accidentally take too much or go too long without it and go through bad withdrawal. Or they might take other drug combinations to make up for not being able to get enough good enough heroin. Shooting up causes the level in the bloodstream to change very suddenly.

Taking pills is much more safe but some of the active ingredient is destroyed by stomach acid or takes longer to digest. One of the founders of Johns Hopkins was a heroin addict. In retrospect it was obvious why it happened: I was eating the school lunch every day, which consisted of burger, fries, cookie, etc. I pretty quickly got back down to what is normal for me, i. Similarly, right now, if I get much above lbs.

People who run in the evening lose more weight than those that run in the evening as those that run in the morning adjust and eat more throughout the day. I wonder if there is a sleep mechanism for resetting the our responses to food.

Lack of sleep inhibits production of anabolic hormone s? This is such a basic fact of exercise physiology that I am perpetually annoyed that nobody seems to take it into account…. I think Scott Sonnon does. Is the gladwell comparison illustrative enough to open with like that? How strongly does BMI correlate with being overweight?

Not according to the Internet! And the Internet never lies, as we all know. Just be careful not to open a portal to an alternate universe. Spinning it as something to do with willpower is just argumentative and seems more like a smug way to dismiss that lean people may have conscious strategies to stay lean. We have an executive function and it can override automatic regulation. There are even studies to back this claim up.

They all reversed their diabetes by changing their diet—mainly reducing calories—and heavily resisted the drugs pushed on them. Regardless of what the studies say, I think people do change their diets when they have the information and incentives. This really needs to be added to the post somewhere because way too many sources bury this very simple and well-researched point that for the average person the difference between diets is negligible.

A couple selected papers: Comparison of weight loss among named diet programs in overweight and obese adults: Jama, 9 , A call for an end to the diet debates. Jama, 7 , All of this is pretty much standard operating procedure in exercise nutrition and I find it annoying to notice that the people who fail at making dieters thinner never ever bothers to consult the people that succeed at fuelling Chris Froome to ride a bicycle really fast.

The principles are the same, you just want to do the opposite. The absolutely most efficient way of maximising calorie uptake is through maltodextrin which is utterly tasteless.

I will freely admit to having a totally unreasonable food budget; I eat at Michelin starred restaurants regularly enough that there are at least three where the staff knows me by name and I cook to a quite fair standard at home too. The lipostat is named such because of its proposed effects on body fat, not because it is proposed to be set by consumed fats. For those of us who enjoy lifting weights, those two concepts would have very different implications. The obvious guess is that we have a separate muscle set point, how much muscle the body thinks it needs, based exercise.

But why does exercise reduce fat? If you had a constant caloric intake, exercise consumes those calories, both directly and by creating hungry muscles. Vaguely similar things exist for all kinds of hormones and neurotransmitters. Even if leptin injections are an inefficient mode of weight control, it still seems to suggest a promising pathway, especially in people who have lost the weight and want to keep it off.

Is modern pet food also hyperpalatable, or do rats just have better regulatory mechanisms than cats and dogs? That struck me too. I suspect pet treats might be the pet equivalent of hyperpalatable food even if the kibble is not. Pet observations also definitely suggest that very rigid simplistic CICO is not quite right.

I know a family with two german shepherds, a male and a female. They are both fed literally the same amount each meal. They both get the exact same exercise walked at the same time, etc. The male has a full-body tire and weighs lbs.

The female weighs 70 lbs. I appreciate this clarification. I think, if nothing else, this thread has made it clear that CICO means a lot of different things to a lot of different people, and so should probably be dissolved as a phrase into its possible meanings, for clarity. It strikes me as the type of thing where the relative ease or difficulty of measurement has shaped the whole concept. You can pretty carefully measure the chemical energy available by oxidation of food with a calorimeter.

Similarly, you can measure the minimum output of a body turning a cycle wheel, moving kg up X stairs pretty easily. It works fine for me; I must be close enough to average that the measurable is a decent proxy for the desired measurement. So I find CICO utterly banal on one level — no one can gain 2 kg from eating 1 kg of food, mass and energy are conserved. Seems from the article, and anecdotal experience of others, that those deviations can be pretty large.

The idea that the actual thermodynamics involved match easily to the numbers on the cookie box and the FitBit is a distorting oversimplification.

FWIW anecdotally I was able to lose weight by calorie counting, but had to be well below the recommended caloric intake level to stay on-plan e. I could only achieve that weight loss rate by averaging calories a day. At first I thought I was cheating somewhere, but even being very strict gave the same result. Either I do not have a good understanding of when a cat is obese or my experience directly contradicts yours.

I must admit though that we usually were kinda stingy with treats. We have a very weird cat who refuses to eat anything other than dry cat food. Even treats that are very similar are suspect. Needless to say, not obese. Our dog probably would get fat if we allowed him to.

Got to lick plates and for some reason loved a bowl of frosted mini wheats no milk every morning. Pets can be weird too.

An indoor surgically neutered cat or dog esp a dog is more activity constrained than a rodent in a cage under the conditions they did the experiments under. Much like with dieting oneself, the trouble is not having him overeat his bland food, but rather preventing him from getting the good stuff.

I have had many pet rats, and about half of them easily became obese eating a standard pet rat diet, while the other half did not. The majority of them got fat, while the majority of the other kinds of rats did not.

All of these rats were female and lived together, eating the exact same food. Pardon me while I grope around on the floor; my eyes rolled so hard at this they fell out of my sockets and rolled under the table. Now I may possibly be putting words into his mouth but what I took away from that was: And the worst thing about that whole encounter, where I admit I threw a tantrum and stalked off in a huff, was that I only turned up because I got a letter calling me to the outpatient clinic.

I think Scott even mentioned in past posts about doing it himself: As to the rest of it, diets are only half the problem. What do I cut from my meal plans for the succeeding three days to offset the splurge of calories? Sticking to the diet! He makes the point our bodies know exactly what to eat. How can scientists do better? If you eat what you were designed to eat caveman diet thinking you will enjoy it better than processed stuff because evolution evolved you to like the food that is best for you.

Any other conclusion is bizarre. But modern food confuses us so we need to get our heads straight. Once we get our heads straight and stick to the right kind of foods we can totally enjoy our food and stay the right weight.

The science of food may be very interesting but it just confuses people. So get your head straight, understand what you really enjoy and it genuinely becomes easy. Once you get your head straight, addiction becomes much easier to handle.

This guy really does understand addiction from the point of view of the addict rather than from the point of view of the scientist. Ah well, I am sounding like a advert so I am sure I am convincing nobody. So how are the hunter-gatherers all that different to farmers growing one staple crop, if they are relying on one particular food? It also seems to me that if anything happens to the nut, like bad droughts or blight, the!

Kung are in trouble, unless they cope with that by upping the amounts of other vegetable food sources they consume. Purely a guess, but it might be because nuts tend to be more easily stored. A few hours a day. Mongongo nuts have a fairly complete nutritional profile. Kung for a few years. I looked into it since we are always on the lookout for more and better ingredients even if unusual. But they are extremely similar to almonds, nutritionally. This clickbait website predicted mongongo nuts to be the next food craze two years ago.

They ALSO said that mongongo nuts are like kopi luwak, only with elephants instead of civets. My impression is that just grabbing them off the plant is more common.

I thought this was a good slogan, but I realized that this could apply to all of our consciousness. There really is no difference between character and chemical, and reading about the hunger feedback loops deeply disturbs me, because it makes this equivocation really obvious. If anyone has further reading on this topic, please send it my way. You are in danger to start liking the books by Peter Watts , esp.

Free will as a concept works well when applied to a human as a whole, viewed from outside, but dissolves into incoherence where you start to look inside the causal mechanisms of decision making. Am I out of the loop? Elbow Room and The Problem of the Soul are good books. I weigh pounds. What proportion of people are as fat as the people in those photographs? Under a percent, I bet. Ten pounds got lost surprisingly quickly and easily after I ecame aware of tension around my ribs near my breastbone and released it.

I thought this would just lower anxiety, but I also became more aware of satiety. Even the Tasy Cake Chocolate Junior, my favorite thing along those lines, only gets me to eat something less than one per week. It started with my face which, after a few weeks, resulted in my eyelids twitching uncontrollably.

It would be useful to set up boundary conditions, then admit that there is some nonlinear function mapping them. That is where the strictness of physics takes over. The overwhelming urge to cheat on the diet would overwhelm them. Or is it some other factor that prevents individuals from committing to diet and exercise?

In which case, we should be explicit about it. However, we can note that it is remarkably hard for humans particularly with brains compromised from junk-food hacking to override the temptation to defect on a spartan diet and exercise.

This is exactly what the military does in boot camp. If someone is overweight, they get reduced rations. If someone is underweight, they get extra rations. And then they move around a lot all day long. Imagine if it were that communism somehow magically worked for like twenty percent of countries that tried it. Then its status as something that can work in certain circumstances would be much, much stronger than the status quo, in which it never works.

Something similar to communism seems to work fine for eusocial species. Of course, no human population has a eusocial reproductive system. Overall, sure, you have a point. Unless the strangers are, in fact, rather closely related all considered. Welfare seems popular and workable in monoethnic states, whereas support is low and abuse high in multiethnic states. My take on it is that exercise is important, but you have to discard all the popular health advice about how just a little bit of exercise is helpful.

If you want exercise to noticeably impact your weight, you have to do a good deal of it at high intensity. And of course not eat it all back. This is supremely fascinating to me. I am one of those people that can eat and eat without gaining much weight despite living a mostly sedentary lifestyle. I eat much smaller meals than most people.

My mother is the same way, she only eats about 1. Well, take as a random number calories per day. There are studies about how the fancy wine bottle makes the 2-buck-chuck taste great. Beyond that some foods get coded to produce disgust in some cultures but not in others.

Could we change the culture to make our bland foods taste better? In japan sweet foods and drinks are associated with childhood, and considered embarrassing for adults. Is capitalism good at making us eat food we are vulnerable to? Could our brains response change based on our beliefs, can a bad food be rendered good via placebo effect?

A friend of mine told me that it takes the brain a little while to notice that it has eaten enough. I have noticed that portion control is easier for me when I eat slowly and deliberately, taking small bites and having stimulating conversation. It does make me wonder if different eating habits could partially account for obesity; maybe in the past we were more pre-disposed to having a few slow, deliberate meals rather than cramming lunch down so we could get back to work or silently eating pizza in front of the TV?

In fact it would be very strange if there were brain-processes that had no chemical counterpart. What I do believe is that human differences can be attributed to the fact that humans are metagamers. I am not aware of any formal body of literature or communities who discuss this. But humans are biologically and culturally programmed to diversify their skillsets. No one cares who the 5th best football player at your high school is.

This fetish for metagaming is apparent in fantasy RPG tropes with burly warriors, nerdy wizards, and streetsmart rogues. An equal combination of which is needed on any adventure in the fantasy genre.

When questioned about their metagame position, people will say: But this is question-begging because it does not explain how they arrived at their preference or explain why human beings even have heterogeneity of preferences.

However it makes sense from a game-theoretic perspective for us to diversify and exploit status ambiguity effects is a good basketball player any better or worse than a good musician?

For example, lawyers are universally derided. Metagaming applies in many subtle ways to the body fat debate. The most obvious is that some people are normal build, but are at risk of dying during famines or diseases. But the whole thing is very complicated because obesity has many effects on physical attractiveness, physical intimidation, etc etc. Back to fantasy tropes, there are jolly fat guys and mean greedy fat guys, both of which incorporate body mass into their metagame choice.

Regardless, getting people to change their weight is likely the same as getting them to change their metagame archetype. There is some supporting evidence for willpower, anyway: Successful dieters had a significantly higher level of dietary restraint compared to non-dieters. In response to meal consumption, successful dieters had a greater activation in the dorsal prefrontal cortex DPFC , dorsal striatum and anterior cerebellar lobe as compared to non-dieters.

In response to the same stimulation, the orbitofrontal cortex OFC was significantly more activated in non-dieters as compared to successful dieters. What you call metagaming would probably more often be called specialisation, and most likely to be discussed and praised by economists.

Specialising in being fat is both a terrible strategy and becoming more and more saturated. So you make two points. First, that being fat is a bad strategy. Why would your sphere leave you for another sphere? The mere fact that you live at the same residence and seem to get along produces more stability than trying to lose weight and compete for attractive mates.

You have to actively leverage your attractiveness and play this game https: My hypothesis is that status drops off precipitously with ranking. And even the fittest guy in your crossfit box, you know in your heart of hearts, is a wuss, because you watch crossfit on TV and see dozens of people who could murder him.

Is your local guy high status now? How this relates to an increase in the obesity metagame is that society used to be close-knit, to where being the strongest guy in your village made you alpha. Now we have youtube and social media showing you that your strong neighbor is actually mediocre. We have the radio and spotify showing you that the best local band is a bug compared to multi-platinum artists. About the only thing left that can get you status without necessarily being ranked is money.

Such that that nth best doctor is still really useful at boosting your social value. TLDR — the space at the top has shrunk dramatically. Even if there are thousands of people on Instagram who are way more shredded than you, having nice abs is still a pretty strong status booster. The girls are all watching the guy who has a 4. You mean you pull lbs? Or something more nuanced like within a weight class, or powerlifting fed. And I assume raw.

Regardless, between and lbs is quite a bit more than most gym casuals will attempt. But in my experience commercial gyms are microcosms of denial. I have a friend at this gym who gave up strength training and is trying to get abs. A more attractive mate? The rate of return on abs for a grown man is quite small. Personally I love abs though and think they should be prized more.

Guitar guy always did well, 4. The red pill meme wants you to think young women are just gratuitous thotties min-maxing according to their SMV. In reality, attractive young women are consciously trying to predict who will come out on top and snag them early.

Attractiveness is a competition, and is completely wasted sleeping around which any moderately attractive woman can do just as easily. Plus fooling around reduces your SMV.

I thought you meant guys making a 4. Now I think you mean the guys with good social skills who go to work for Exxon in a white collar role right after college.

They existed too, I had some roommates in that class. Perhaps the relative importance of different factors changes with age. My PR is , raw, no straps. However, I think I could reasonably end up at any attractiveness level between unkempt obese mess and fairly jacked, lean, and well-groomed. Would not have guessed the SSC comments section would represent so many standard deviations above the norm for physical strength. For example, nerd who squats in his garage vs. Are you sure about that?

The path to wealth is fairly obvious. You just have to aim directly at it and also be willing to make costly up-front sacrifices. And that is exactly why it does not contribute much to status. This has nothing to do with that. I came of age before all that crap. I believed that women would value long-term value.

They do, but it takes, well, a long time. I would like to compete, but recurrent injuries have held me back in the past. If I thought there was a higher chance of success, I might be inclined to try one of those paths. Now, you two are stronger than I am, so this has me wondering. What is the economic situation like around where you live? The reason I ask is because I currently live in an oil city that is absolutely flooded with money. I could see the situation being reversed somewhere jobs are hard to come by and decent earnings are rare, all this essentially boiling down to comparative local advantage.

I imagine only those interested in strength contests would know this immediately, and in that sphere doubtless being No. Can he overtake No. But what is real about it? All this number quoting you do about lifting so many pounds of weight — what does it mean? How much work can you do? How strong are you really? I generally think men really into lifting etc.

Women like six-pack abs for the look of it and neither know nor care if you can benchpress or lbs. As far as I can tell, weight lifting and bodybuilding are different subcultures, though both are very artificial. When I do a deadlift one of the competitive lifts in powerlifting , I am literally just picking up a heavy piece of metal off the floor. Donnie was a pretty respectable bodybuilder back in the day, and I believe Mark has been on stage as well. So even though being fat has adverse effects on health and well-being, none of those really matter in terms of genetic fitness?

Why is this a better strategy than being thin? A strongman not being particularly attractive to women is pretty well-known in those groups. The understanding is most women desire the Brad Pitt in Fight Club look. Why are women getting fat at the same rate as men? In terms of social status, being fat is way worse for women. I suspect the answer to these question is: So fat-pacting with another loser and creating a stable family of losers is a better strategy.

The intersection between your system and willpower is complex: For example, the section on arrested development. Once you start looking at genetics, everything sort of falls into place…. This does explain your excitement about genetics, but the history of the last couple of centuries makes me incredibly skeptical about the idea that genetic explanations will actually somehow help us to accept that people are actually wildly different.

To use an example from one of your earlier links on gender differences, maybe women are genetically, evolutionarily pre-disposed to liking more empathetic play. It seems to me that the people who believe this have a couple of reactions when they see a woman who likes soccer:. History shows pretty conclusively that it is very, very easy for people to take genetic explanations seriously, while still dismissing the importance of outliers, weirdoes, and personal experience.

Frequently, genes are used as an excuse to dismiss or ignore lived experiences. It took massive amounts of activism and social disapproval to get as far as we have on homosexuality, and no other character trait has gotten that level of attention with that approach. One more point in regards to fatness and perceived self-control. There are fat people who do difficult things like getting advanced degrees or finishing triathelons.

Depending on the culture, they may count in principle but not be known until a first impression has been firmly established. It has been very weird for me to watch it become dogma that homosexuality is innate, and therefore cannot, and should not be changed.

Because I grew up with people working to break the stigma around mental illness, working to convince people that, say, depression was innate, and therefore it was our obligation to find compassionate ways to change it. To lose slavery, or segregation, would be to set anarchy upon the US, as people with an innate drive towards bad behavior would be allowed to fruitlessly indulge in it until the country was a wreck.

There is also the fact of, well, all of American history. The idea of genetic disadvantage is fully compatible with many of the more sophisticated moral arguments for US style slavery, which was often cast as a kind of uplift; the innately advantaged white man shared as much of his advantage with the black man as the black man was capable of handling, while using his innate self-control to protect the black man from the worst consequences of his innate wildness and destructiveness.

And if, after all that, the black man still claimed to be miserable? That dynamic has played out, again and again, throughout the last two centuries. The communist dictatorships had a similar thought process, although the groups were different.

I think it is very reasonable to be extremely on guard against anything that would justify that dynamic once again. It makes perfect sense to be on guard, yes. This seems needlessly negative. More people getting their harmless preferences fulfilled, modulo ACL tears. Does anybody know if they have plans to ever ship outside the US?

It turns out to be crazy expensive. What if you made them in China and took advantage of whatever allows the Chinese to have free international shipping?

Also, shipping companies employ huge ships between China and the US, so a fairly small crew is able to move a lot of containers. I know people that have successfully imported fairly obscure goods that way, for a fairly small business.

I meant free for the customer. The production costs of your products and the shipping tend to be really low compared to the price you pay in the store. The markup is huge. If you heal the lipostat feedback, you lose weight when your body needs energy and is willing to release fat stores. Then, when you run a calorie deficit, your body sends a different signal that says the fat stores are empty, and you feel hunger from a new source, or maybe satisfaction from restoring your existing fat cells.

That makes you hungry enough to refill the fat stores. The idea is this: If I eat units of some nutrient, my body will only actually absorb maybe 70 units of that nutrient with the other 30 units being simply passed through the colon and released.

But if my body somehow senses that I am deficient in that type of nutrient for some reason, it can choose to invest extra effort and absorb maybe 90 out of units of that nutrient. Likewise, the body can reduce its digestion efficiency if it senses that it has a surplus of that nutrient. If this were true, it would really help smooth long term weight gain from local variations in food consumption. If different people have different set points for digestive efficiency this could also help explain differences between people.

I wonder if some thin people have less efficient digestive systems, and can thus consume a lot of calories without actually absorbing that many. One of my friends growing up ate tons of really unhealthy, calorie-laden food pizza, chicken nuggets, burgers, chips, soda, etc and always remained on the edge of looking anorexic.

She also never exercised. But when I and most of our other friends ate the same way, we gained a lot of weight. Was her digestive system simply not processing the food as efficiently? I heard a guy complain that he needed to eat a lot while being thin, and he kept losing girlfriends because they were dieting and found it hard to see him do that. One of the other guys at the table tore one layer off a napkin, and asked to drape it over the first guys hand. It sounds like Guyenet and most people who discuss inflammatory responses think of it in terms of blood sugar or blood lipids increasing inflammatory response.

From pharma perspective, an agonist or positive allosteric modulator of leptin receptor would be an excellent remedy for obesity. Unfortunately, this receptor belongs to an almost undruggable family of cytokine receptors.

Quick search gave only a couple of interleukine receptors antagonists. Interleukin receptors are related to leptin receptors, which is both a bad thing because their inadvertent activation could trigger massive inflammatory response and a good thing because making an antagonist of OB-R is just a few steps away from making antagonist of IL-5 R. However, making an agonist or positive allosteric modulator in general is much harder than making an antagonist — there are much more ways to break a receptor than to force its activation.

So I guess anti-obesity drugs utilizing leptin pathway are still far away. My weight has varied a significant amount through my adult life. For a year or two I would gain some weight perhaps 20 lbs and then when I was willing to be hungry would eliminate it by eating less and exercising more. It gradually got harder, and 15 or 20 years ago it started to rise more. About 5 years ago I weighed lbs and was taking medication to reduce my blood pressure and triglycerides. I was basically following the food pyramid lots of whole grains and vegetables, modest amounts of fat and protein.

I ate very little processed snack foods or meals now and then a pizza. I ate less than I wanted and told my friends that I was always hungry which was only a slight exaggeration. On my last check up, my blood glucose was slightly above normal. It seemed to make sense, so I decided to try eliminating almost all carbohydrates and eating all I wanted of other foods.

It worked very well for me, and I ended up reading a number of books on diet such as by Atkins. In about a year and a half I had lost about 70 lbs, had very little hunger, and was off the blood pressure and triglyceride medications. Some of the reduce blood pressure was probably due to increased exercise, but I lost at least 40 lbs before exercising much. Getting to lbs took a little effort and hunger. Getting to lbs took a lot of effort and hunger, and I quickly went back to lbs once I stopped trying.

For the last several years I have stayed between and lbs without doing much. I have reserved The Hungry Brain from my library. I think what I most appreciate about what The Hungry Brain has to say based on the above review is the link between the basic calories-in-calories-out theory and the body weight set point theory.

My problem with the natural set point theory is that it struggles to explain why obesity has risen so significantly in the last 50 years in just about every country that has adopted a western diet and lifestyle. The UK is infamous for bland food and yet is not far behind America in obesity could simply be a different definition of bland though. Their descendants, inheriting the genetic basis for that set point, could just gorge on McDonalds and so all weigh the lbs their body thinks is healthy….

Yet I could believe that greater exposure to calorie-rich foods in childhood could alter the set point — a lot of obese people seem to report being made to eat huge portions as children, or eating junk food more often.

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