Basic types of respiratory structures
If the breach is small, they'll break trying to get through. After creating billions of galaxies in Genesis, the god of the Torah is implausibly obsessed with the family of Abraham and the Jordan valley where they live. When used in reference to cartridge filters, refers to chemicals used to hold, or bind, short fibers together in a filter. The largest cavities of the ventricular system are the lateral ventricles. Additionally, this group of animals has developed the cardio-respiratory regulatory mechanisms needed to integrate cardiovascular and ventilatory performance with metabolic demands [ 15 ]. What's on the tube? In a PTFE graft, fibers are woven into a mesh called Gore-Tex and made into a sleeve and flange; this is available in a variety of sizes.
The gases in the environment
A measurement of the duration of contact between water and the media through which it is flowing, typically used in reference to carbon beds. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide, a substance released from the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria when the organism is broken down. A type of motor enclosure that will prevent sparks generated by the motor from reaching the atmosphere outside of the motor enclosure. As a general rule our company does not sell this kind of motor.
The piping with all valves and fittings which is used to connect the filter system together as a unit. This includes all valves and piping necessary for the filter plant to perform the functions of filtering or backwashing, either by the plant as a whole or any unit operating singly.
The ultimate load divided by the safe load or the ultimate strength divided by the allowable stress. Water under pressure entering a purification system or an individual piece of purification equipment, such as an ultra filter, distiller or reverse osmosis system.
A basis for indicating the resistance in a hydraulic system, equivalent to the height of a column of water that would cause the same resistance feet of head equals 43 pounds per square inch. The total head is the sum of all resistances in a complete operating system. The principal factors affecting a head are vertical distances and the resistance caused by friction between the fluid and pipe walls.
Small solid iron particles containing trivalent iron, usually as gelatinous ferric hydroxide or ferric oxide, which are suspended in water and visible as "rusty water". Ferric iron can normally be removed by filtration. Also called "precipitated iron". A divalent iron ion, usually as ferrous bicarbonate which, when dissolved in water, produces a clear solution.
It is usually removed by cation exchange water softening. Also called "clear water" iron. A device that separates solid particles from water by recirculating the water through a porous substance a filter medium element.
A filter that utilizes a medium that under normal use will not have to be replaced. A filter that utilizes a thin layer of diatomaceous earth as its filter medium that periodically must be replaced. A filter that utilizes a porous cartridge as its filter medium. A type of finely divided media used to coat a septum type filter, usually diatomaceous earth or volcanic ash. Alum, as used on the bed of a sand filter, is also referred to as a filter aid.
A filter which operates through a disposeable cartridge. These are of two general types: The surface or area type where the suspended matter is removed at the surface, and the depth type in which the interstices vary from large to small in depth.
One designed to filter water through a thin layer of filter aid such as diatomaceous earth or volcanic ash. Diatomite filters may be of the Pressure, Gravity, Suction or Vacuum type. A device within a filter tank designed to entrap solids and conduct water to a manifold, collection header, pipe or similar conduit. A filter element usually consists of a septum and septum support. The finely graded material which entraps suspended particles sand, anthracite, diatomaceous earth, etc.
That part of the filter element consisting of cloth, wire screen or other porous material on which the filter cake is deposited. A filter with a layer of filter media usually silica sand supported on graded gravel through which water flows by gravity.
A type of filter media composed of hard sharp silica, quartz, or similar particles with proper grading for size and uniformity. The rate of filtration of water through a filter during the filter cycle expressed in US gallons per minute per square foot of effective filter area.
The Federation Internationale de Natation Amateur — The governing body for intercollegiate competition including the Olympic games. A compound, such as one of the alums, which forms minute flakes in water which attract or enmesh small suspended particles. Chemical which, when added to water, causes particles to coagulate into larger, settleable groupings. Aluminum compounds are common catalysts in this process.
The slope in the pool floor, usually expressed in feet or inches of vertical rise in feet or inches of horizontal distance. A quantitative expression of the rate of linear motion at which water passes through a pipe or conduit. A process by which particles are suspended by an upward flow of liquid, such as may occur during back washing of ion exchange resin or carbon media. A salt of hydrofluoric acid which may occur naturally in water supplies or be added by municipal processes for the prevention of dental caries.
Fluoride is considered toxic in most medical settings and has been implicated with a wide range of physiological disorders including renal bone disease. The rate per unit of area at which water passes through a semi-permeable membrane, such as those used for ultrafiltration or reverse osmosis. A modified check valve that has a screen on the suction end to prevent debris from entering the pump or pipe.
The deposition of insoluble materials, such as bacteria, colloids, oxides and water-borne debris, onto the surface of a media such as water softening resins, reverse osmosis or ultrafiltration membrane.
Fouling is associated with decreased flux rates and may also reduce the rejection rates of reverse osmosis membranes. The clear vertical distance between the top of the filter medium and the lowest outlet of the upper distribution system in a permanent medium filter.
The loss of pressure or head due to the resistance to flow in the pipe and fittings. Friction loss is influenced by pipe size and fluid velocity, and is usually expressed in feet of head. Acidic substances which are found in humic organic soils and which may become suspended in water. A component in the production of chloramines. A parasitic plant which produces no chlorophyll and is dependent on other life forms for its existence.
Wastewater from household baths and washing machines that is sometimes recycled especially for use in gardening or for flushing toilets. Is not limited to but may be located within or without the pool, spa or hot tub or as part of a set of steps or deck-installed equipment. The amount of calcium and magnesium in the water in grains per gallon, expressed as calcium carbonate.
This level is important to control during distillation or reverse osmosis processes to prevent scaling. Each grain is equal to What constitutes truly "hard" water is subject to much debate and controversy. Proponents of water softening systems tend to call water "hard" which contains between 3 and 10 grains of hardness. This definition is supported by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers and the Water Quality Association, major supporters of the water softening industry.
Water with 10 grains of hardness, is regularly used by consumers, with little or no adverse affect on plumbing or other household functions. Water, which approaches 15 to 20 grains is more in line with situations which require water softening or conditioning. Water with 3 grains of hardness and is termed "moderately hard" by these organizations is typically found in surface and spring water sources, far removed from what one would consider hard water sources.
A term used to define water pressure in vertical feet. Or a term representing the energy content of a liquid, expressed as the height of an equivalent vertical column of water. This is expressed in feet of head. This can apply to both sides of a pump; the suction side and discharge side. It is also used to express the total losses in a pumping system Total Dynamic Head. Metals having a high density or specific gravity. A generic term used to classify contaminants such as cadmium, lead and mercury.
These contaminants can damage living things even at low concentrations and tend to accumulate in the food chain. The horizontal distance between the point where fluid enters a pipe and the point at which it leaves. The fitting used to connect the hose to the vacuum wall fitting usually a combination hose sleeve and nut. A spa constructed of wood with sides and bottom formed separately; and the whole shapes to join together by pressure from the surrounding hoops, bands or rods; as distinct from spa units formed from plastic, concrete, metal or other materials.
A damaging condition that occurs when a column of liquid changes direction quickly and increases in velocity. Weakest point in system will break. Causes can be sudden loss of power to the driver, valve closing too quickly, valve closing too slowly allowing backflow.
A toxic gas that is detectable by a strong "rotten egg" odor. Associated with high levels of bacterial decay.
Commonly found together with iron and manganese contaminants. A fitting that bleeds air and water creating a high velocity, turbulent stream of air enriched water. The term used to describe how water travels through the environment by evaporation, condensation and precipitation. Identical process is observed in steam distillation systems. A chemical process resulting from reactions with water; frequently used in reference to the breakdown of polymers.
A unit that may have a therapeutic use which is not drained, cleaned or refilled for each individual. It may include, but not be limited to, hydrojet circulation, hot water and cold water mineral baths, air induction bubbles or any combination thereof.
A device used to feed, control and measure a solution of sodium or calcium hypochlorite into a water being treated. There are three general types: The positive displacement type which is usually a motor driven unit, the aspirator type actuated by a pressure differential created within the hydraulic system, and the metering type connected to the pump suction using an orifice which is opened and closed by a timing mechanism.
A chemical compound commonly found in two forms for use with pools, spas and hot tubs: The bladed member of the rotating assembly of the pump which applies the principal force to the liquid being pumped.
The fitting through which the filtered water passes to the pool filtered water inlet , or the fitting through which raw water passes to the pool raw water inlet. An element related to chlorine and bromine used as a disinfectant, both in its natural solid form and in iodide compounds.
When iodides are used, chlorine is normally employed to free the elemental iodine. An atom or molecule having either a positive or negative electrical charge. Positively charged ions are referred to as cations and ions having a negative charge are termed anions. A process by which certain ionized chemicals present in water are replaced with other ionized chemicals temporarily attached to resin particles. The exchange process is made only for ions having the same charge.
A very common element often present in ground water in amounts ranging from 0. Iron may be found in three forms: Bacteria which thrive on iron and are able to actually use ferrous iron as found in water or steel pipes in their metabolic processes to incorporate ferric iron in their cell structure and to deposit gelatinous ferric hydroxide iron compounds in their life processes. An accessory kit sold with jet pumps. Can consist of ejector, extra nozzles and venturis, bushings and reducers, pipe adapters and foot valves, and packing leathers.
Also known as Ejector package or Injector package. A visual means of measuring water clarity based upon the amount of light passing through a tube of water. A mechanism that has a coil spring, leaf spring or comparable device located beneath the board which is activated by the force exerted in jumping on the board. A ladder that straddles the pool wall of an aboveground pool and provides pool ingress and egress. Any ladder with provision for making entry inaccessible when a pool, spa or hot tube is not in use i.
Associated with fluid dynamics and designs of fluid tubing and pipelines. A calculated number used to predict the calcium carbonate CaCO3 stability of a water; whether a water will precipitate, dissolve, or be in equilibrium with, calcium carbonate.
It is sometimes erroneously assumed that any water that tends to dissolve calcium carbonate is automatically corrosive. A polysaccharide found in the cell walls of plants; a breakdown product of decaying vegetation, which may be present in surface water supplies. A liner that is constructed of a material that has the capability of stretching into a greater depth of irregular shape other than the original construction dimensions.
The liner that is used to obtain greater depth by geometrical pattern construction on the liner bottom or floor to fit a predetermined size and shape. Those devices used in the bottom of a permanent medium filter to collect the water during the filtering and to distribute the water during the backwashing.
Thin films constructed of cellulosic or synthetic materials, which are designed to provide selective transport of solutes. Widely used for hemodialysis, micro filtration, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis, membranes may be either homogeneous or asymmetric.
Homogeneous membranes have a uniform structure or cross-section while asymmetric membranes have a dense "skin" which overlays a porous substructure. The presence in blood of methemoglobin, a substance related to normal oxyhemoglobin, but having no oxygen-carrying capabilities and induced by exposure of blood to certain toxic chemicals, such as nitrites.
A measure of concentration of a dissolved substance in a liquid. For practical purposes, this unit is equal to parts per million ppm since one liter of water is equal in weight to one million milligrams. Thus, a liter of water containing 10 milligrams of calcium has 10 parts of calcium per one million parts of water or 10 parts per million 10 ppm.
The separation or removal from a liquid of particulates and micro-organisms in the size range of 0. In the context of water purification, membranes having an average pore size, which is between 0.
A measurement of capacitance electrical storage capability. Capacitors or condensers have a range listed on the casing MFD, example showing the capacity it can handle. They will also show the maximum voltage they can handle V, example. One millionth of an ohm. The unit of measurement for testing the electrical resistance of water to determine its purity. The closer water comes to absolute purity, the greater its resistance to conduction of an electrical current. Absolute pure water has a specific resistance over 18 million ohms megohms across one centimeter of water at a temperature of 78 degrees Fahrenheit.
A unit of linear measure. It is one millionth of a meter, or one thousandth of a millimeter. The smallest particle than can be distinguished by the naked eye would be about 40 microns across. A measurement applied to filters or filter media to indicate the particle size at which a substantial percentage of suspended solids above that size will be removed.
As used in the water treatment industry standards, this may be an absolute rating or a nominal rating. A common measurement for the flow rate of small RO systems. Usually measured with a graduate cylinder. One thousandth of a liter per minute. The intermixing of two or more filter or ion exchange products in the same vessel during a service run. In filtration, there may be an intermixing of two or more media in a single tank with each stratified into separate layers.
Short for Modular Media, a type of filtration system. Consists of filters within filters - interchangeable and replaceable. A volatile organic chemical VOC used as an octane-enhancing lead substitute and more recently as an oxygenating agent in gasoline to reduce carbon monoxide emissions from automobiles.
MTBE is volatile, flammable and highly soluble in water. During refueling and gasoline production, MTBE is volatilized to the atmosphere where it dissolves into the atmospheric moisture and returns to earth as precipitation, polluting our water supplies. Since MTBE does not adsorb well with organic matter in soils it is easily washed away. In surface water, MTBE volatilizes into the air. While in ground water, MTBE persists and moves freely. MTBE occurrences in ground water above 40 ppb have so far been attributed to point source contamination such as underground gasoline tank leaks, overflows, etc.
A multi-port valve with at least four positions for varous filter operations, which combines in one unit the function of two or more single direct flow valves Dial Selector Valve.
The nanofiltration process can pass more water at lower pressure operations than reverse osmosis, can remove particles in the to 1, molecular weight range such as humic acid and organic color bodies present in water, and can reject selected typically polyvalent salts. Nanofiltration may be used for selective removal of hardness ions in a process known as membrane softening.
National Collegiate Athletic Association — The governing body for intercollegiate competition and the recording agent for college swimming records. The addition of either an acid to a base or a base to an acid to produce a more nearly neutral solution. The use of alkaline or basic materials to neutralize acidity of some water is common practice in water processing to prevent corrosion of metallic home plumbing.
An anion comprised of one nitrogen atom and three oxygen atoms. Nitrates are considered toxic in hemodialysis water and are also harmful to infants when consumed orally. Filter rating indicating the approximate size particle, the majority of which will not pass through the filter.
It is generally interpreted as meaning 85 percent of the particles of the size equal to the nominal filter rating will be retained by the filter. Any portion of a pool, spa or hot tub where water depth, offset ledges or similar irregularities would prevent normal swimming activities. Atmospheric pressure causes the increase in velocity. NPS occurs mainly through stormwater runoff. Net Positive Suction Head. There are two types of NPSH. NPSHR is the amount of head required by the pump to keep the liquid being pumped in a liquid state.
The only way NPSHR can be changed is by changing the pumps' rotational speed or its impeller diameter. NPSHA is affected by atmospheric pressure changes, altitude, pipe and fitting sizes, and elevation to the liquid being pumped.
An instrumental means of measuring water clarity based upon the intensity of light scattered by suspended particles. The manufacturer's specified range of pressure expressed in pounds per square inch PSI in which a water processing device or water system is designed to function.
The manufacturer's recommended feed water or inlet water temperature for a water treatment system. A disc, placed in a water flow line, with a concentric sharp-edged circular opening in the center, which creates a differential pressure to measure flow and to operate feeders and instruments or other hydraulic equipment. The natural tendency of water to pass through a semi-permeable membrane, so as to equalize concentrations on both sides of the membrane. The force pressure resulting when two liquids, having different solute concentrations, are separated by a semi-permeable membrane.
For every ppm, an osmotic "back pressure" of 1 psi is generated and this "back pressure" must be overcome in the reverse osmosis process. Abnormal bone development which, in renal patients, may be attributed to parathyroid gland dysfunction and is characterized by high serum phosphorus and alkaline phosphates and low serum calcium levels. Refers to removal of pool surface water through the use of overflows, surface skimmers and surface water collection systems of various design and manufacture.
Chemicals, which provide oxygen and accept an electron in an oxidation-reduction reaction. Free chlorine and chloramines are oxidants, which are widely used for disinfection. Filters that use a catalytic media, such as managanous oxides or potassium permangenate, to oxidize iron, manganese and other impurities from water. An extremely active oxidizing agent and bacteriocide, which consists of three oxygen atoms.
It is formed by the action of a high voltage electrical field on oxygen or air such as occurs during an electrical storm. Some degree of ozone can also be produced by certain types of ultraviolet lamps.
The standard measure of total dissolved solids. Parts of dissolved material in one million parts of water. A unit of pressure equal to one newton of force per square meter. One thousand pascals equal one kilopascal KPa ; a kilopascal equals 0.
Micro-organism that can cause disease in other organisms or in humans, animals and plants. They may be bacteria, viruses or parasites and are found in sewage, in runoff from animals and in water used for swimming.
Fish and shellfish contaminated by pathogens, or the contaminated water itself, can cause serious illness. A measurement of water acidity or alkalinity using a scale of 0 to Relative acidity or alkalinity of a substance, such as water, as indicated by the hydrogen ion concentration.
Weak aromatic acids, which are indicative of industrial pollution of water supplies. When combined with chlorine, they produce an objectionable taste and odor. A synthetic polymer of the nylon family used in the fabrication of reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration membranes. A synthetic polymer used to fabricate reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration membranes, which are characterized by extreme thermal stability and chemical resistance.
Popular in dental waterline filtration systems. A type of pool heater operating as an Indirect Type, but using steam instead of hot water in the closed system.
The normal or operating water level when the pool is in use. A device through which pool water is circulated to increase the temperature of the water.
In the Direct Type, the heat is transferred directly to the pool water circulating tubes. The Indirect Type utilizes a separate enclosed system which is directly exposed to heat generator and which heats the pool water by circulating the steam or hot water around the tubes of a heat exchanger through which the water circulates. The heat generator is considered part of every heater.
The aboveground pool frame is located entirely above ground and may be readily disassembled for storage and reassembled to its original integrity. One that is so constructed that it may be readily disassembled for storage and reassembled to its original integrity. Any pool, spa or hot tub whose sides rest fully above the surrounding earth and that has a deep area below the ground level. Any pool, other than a residential pool, which is intended to be used for swimming or bathing and is operated by an owner, lessee, operator, licensee or concessionaire, regardless of whether a fee is charged for use.
The pool may also be used for recreation. Any pool operated solely for and in conjunction with lodgings such as hotels, motels, apartments, condominiums, etc. Public Pools suitable for the installation of diving equipment by type. Diving equipment classified at a higher type may not be used on a pool of lesser type i. Residential Pools shall be further classified into types as an indication of the suitability of a pool for use with diving equipment. Residential pools suitable for the installation of diving equipment by type.
Any water, such as an approved domestic water supply, which is bacteriologically safe and otherwise suitable for drinking. An oxidizing agent commonly used for the regeneration of manganese green sand iron filters and occasionally used as a disinfectant.
A water storage tank pre-charged with air at factory featuring a vinyl bag to separate water from air which prevents waterlogging. This tank design provides greater drawdown than standard tanks.
Pre-charged tanks do not require air volume control. The coating of filter aid on the septum of a diatomite type filter at the beginning of each filter cycle. A device used to feed a calculated amount of filter aid at the start of a diatomaceous earth filter cycle - following the cleaning operation.
The difference is pressure between two parts of a hydraulic system influent and effluent of a filter, suction and discharge of a pump, the up and down-stream sides of a venturi or orifice. Sometimes referred to as "delta P", it is the decrease in hydrostatic force pressure due to the effects of friction or restrictions on a flowing liquid.
The vertical distance in feet equal to the pressure in PSI at a specific point. The pressure head is equal to the pressure in PSI times 2. The purified water stream from equipment, such as distillation, reverse osmosis and ultra filter units.
A series of compounds of ammonia in solution used as algaecides and germicides which reduce the surface tension of the water. The flow pattern in which water flows from the outside of a filter element to the center core. For example, a replaceable particulate or carbon cartridge filter unit. The exposed nervous system may become infected, so prompt surgery is needed after birth. Spina bifida can occur in different forms: The severity of spina bifida depends on the type, size, location and complications.
The mildest form, spina bifida occulta results in a small separation or gap in one or more of the bones of the spine vertebrae. Many people who have spina bifida occulta don't even know it, unless the condition is discovered during an imaging test done for unrelated reasons. In a form of spina bifida called meningocele, the protective membranes around the spinal cord meninges push out through the opening in the vertebrae, forming a sac filled with fluid.
But this sac doesn't include the spinal cord, so nerve damage is less likely, though later complications are possible. Also known as open spina bifida, myelomeningocele is the most severe form. The spinal canal is open along several vertebrae in the lower or middle back.
The membranes and spinal nerves push through this opening at birth, forming a sac on the baby's back, typically exposing tissues and nerves. This makes the baby prone to life-threatening infections. Signs and symptoms of spina bifida vary by type and severity. Symptoms can also differ for each person. Typically, meningocele and myelomeningocele are diagnosed before or right after birth, when medical care is available.
These children should be followed by a specialized team of doctors throughout their lives and families should be educated on the different complications to watch for. Children with spina bifida occulta typically don't have any symptoms or complications, so usually only routine pediatric care is needed. Doctors aren't certain what causes spina bifida. As with many other problems, it appears to result from a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors, such as a family history of neural tube defects and folate deficiency.
Spina bifida is more common among whites and Hispanics, and females are affected more often than males. Although doctors and researchers don't know for sure why spina bifida occurs, they have identified some risk factors:.
If you have known risk factors for spina bifida, talk with your doctor to determine if you need a larger dose or prescription dose of folic acid, even before a pregnancy begins.
If you take medications, tell your doctor. Some medications can be adjusted to diminish the potential risk of spina bifida, if plans are made ahead of time. Spina bifida may cause minimal symptoms or only minor physical disabilities. If the spina bifida is severe, sometimes it leads to more significant physical disabilities.
Severity is affected by:. This list of possible complications may seem overwhelming, but not all children with spina bifida get all these complications. And these conditions can be treated. Folic acid, taken in supplement form starting at least one month before conception and continuing through the first trimester of pregnancy, greatly reduces the risk of spina bifida and other neural tube defects.
It's critical to have enough folic acid in your system by the early weeks of pregnancy to prevent spina bifida. Because many women don't discover that they're pregnant until this time, experts recommend that all women of childbearing age take a daily supplement of micrograms mcg of folic acid. Several foods, including enriched bread, pasta, rice and some breakfast cereals, are fortified with mcg of folic acid per serving. Folic acid may be listed on food packages as folate, which is the natural form of folic acid found in foods.
If you're actively trying to conceive, most pregnancy experts believe supplementation of at least mcg of folic acid a day is the best approach for women planning pregnancy. Your body doesn't absorb folate as easily as it absorbs synthetic folic acid, and most people don't get the recommended amount of folate through diet alone, so vitamin supplements are necessary to prevent spina bifida.
And, it's possible that folic acid will also help reduce the risk of other birth defects, including cleft lip, cleft palate and some congenital heart defects. It's also a good idea to eat a healthy diet, including foods rich in folate or enriched with folic acid. This vitamin is present naturally in many foods, including:. If you have spina bifida or if you've given birth to a child with spina bifida, you'll need extra folic acid before you become pregnant.
If you're taking anti-seizure medications or you have diabetes, you may also benefit from a higher dose of this B vitamin. But check with your doctor before taking additional folic acid supplements. Spina bifida care at Mayo Clinic. Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. Advertising revenue supports our not-for-profit mission. This content does not have an English version. This content does not have an Arabic version. Overview Spina bifida is a birth defect that occurs when the spine and spinal cord don't form properly.